Common Myths About Nuts and Dried Fruits

Nuts and dried fruits have been in our diets for a long time and, in recent years their health benefits and the importance of adding them into our daily lives is getting more widely known. But even so, nuts and dried fruits have still been suffering some myths related with their health benefits or nutrient content – some of them true and some of them false. In this article we are going to uncover the truths and debunk the myths about nuts and dried fruits.

Myth 1: Nut Consumption Leads to Weight Gain
The belief that dried nuts are a fattening food has been commonly accepted for decades and therefore, it has long been assumed that nut intake leads to a weight gain. It is true that nuts are energy-dense foods and also high in fat, but they are especially high in unsaturated fats, also known as healthy fats. Research evidence showed us that when compared to a nut-free diet, the presence of nuts in a diet leads to a more moderate weight increase. The results revealed that those participants who had consumed more nuts (more than one serving per week), incorporated to a standard diet, did gain weight, but less than those who hadn’t. Another study concluded that incorporating nuts as part of a healthy dietary pattern by replacing less healthful foods may help mitigate the gradual weight gain common during adulthood, and beneficially contribute to the prevention of obesity.

Moreover, incorporating almonds into your diet, for example as a mid-morning snack may help reduce overall hunger, so they also may be effective for appetite control. And, a daily intake of 44 g of pistachios over 12 weeks may help improve nutrient intake without affecting body weight.

Myth 2: Walnuts May Help Improve Brain Health
The Greeks called the walnut “karyon” (head), because it looks like a myths about nutshuman brain. For this same reason, for centuries the Chinese have believed that walnut kernel are good for the brain. This fact is, is that this fact is not false at all. Recent research suggests that walnut consumption may help improve cognitive function (brain health) and may also reduce the risk of other diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, depression and type 2 diabetes, which are risk factors for the development of dementia. Now there a reason to add walnuts to your diet.

Myth 3: The Sugar Content of Dried Fruits Promotes Dental Cavities?
Traditional dried fruit is simply fresh fruit with water removed. They contain naturally occurring sugars (not added sugars), with fructose and glucose being the most common. Due to their stickiness and natural sugar content, it has been thought that dried fruits could cause tooth decay. This is the case of an urban myth according to Jennette Higgs, Registered Public Health Nutritionist & Dietitian, and principal consultant for Food to Fit. Scientific evidence suggests the contrary. For example, bioactive compounds found in raisins appear to have antimicrobial properties that inhibit the growth of bacteria that cause cavities and gum disease.

Advice on dried fruit consumption should also take into account their nutritional benefits, being a source of fiber, low in fat and containing useful levels of micronutrients.

Myth 4: Soaked Import Nuts Better for You
soaking nuts mythRecommendations to soak nuts prior to consumption to reduce phytate concentrations and improve gastrointestinal tolerance have received much attention in the popular press. Phytates or phytic acid is a substance found in plants that when eaten by humans, can reduce absorption of nutrients (specially minerals) from the diet. For that reason, soaking nuts before eating them has been so popular in recent years. This is despite no supporting scientific evidence for the practice.

However, a 2018 study, primarily assessed the effects of soaking almonds on consumer acceptance and secondly assessed effects on gastrointestinal tolerance. Results observed that nuts were well tolerated gastrointestinally, but soaking does not improve gastrointestinal tolerance or acceptance as claimed in the lay literature. With regards their phytate content, soaking resulted in lower mineral concentrations, especially for chopped nuts. But this research does not support claims that ‘activating’ or soaking nuts results in greater nutrient bioavailability/absorption.

Myth 5: Raw vs. Roasted Nuts
Many people wonder whether raw nuts are healthier than roasted, like pumpkin kernel. It is a common myth that some people think that with the roasting process the nutritional properties in nuts, specially vitamins and minerals, could decrease. The fact is that nuts are generally roasted to improve their taste, aroma and crunchy texture.

To prove the point, Raw vs. Roasted Nutsscientific studies observed that nuts roasted at suitable temperature and time demonstrated excellent antioxidant activities therefore showing that, when done correctly, roasting does not affect nutritional properties in nuts.

Sunflower seeds: Nutritional and health benefits

Sunflower seeds kernel are popular health foods that people commonly consume in trail mix, breakfast cereals, or straight from the bag as a snack. They contain beneficial nutrients, including healthy fats, minerals, and antioxidant compounds.

Health benefits
Including sunflower seeds in the diet can offer health benefits. The following sections discuss these potential benefits in more detail.

Anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial
ResearchTrusted Source suggests sunflower seeds are:

anti-inflammatory
antifungal
antibacterial
wound healing
The beneficial effects are due to compounds such as phenols, tannins, and saponins.

People with diabetes can produce advanced glycation end products that can cause damage to the body. Sunflower seeds contain compounds that can inhibit these substances.

Cynarin in sunflower seeds kernel can lower triglycerides and cholesterol, an effect that may potentially benefit people with hyperglycemia or hyperlipidemia.

A small pilot studyTrusted Source of 50 adults with obesity found that sunflower seed extract reduced blood cholesterol and benefited body weight and fat mass.

However, as participants took a concentrated extract, this may not yield the same effects as consuming sunflower seeds. Additionally, researchers instructed participants to consume 500 fewer calories than their usual diet, which would also result in weight loss.

Healthy skin and bones
Sunflower seeds, with spices added, contain omega-6 fatty acids, which people require for healthy skin.

Research indicates that essential fatty acid deficiency significantly affects skin function and appearance. With this in mind, including sources of essential fatty acids in the diet may help prevent skin conditions, such as dermatitis, and reduce the effects of aging on the skin.

Sunflower seeds also contain zinc, an essentialTrusted Source mineral for skin health, and minerals, including magnesium, calcium, and phosphorous for healthy bones.

getting parent’s actual height fitter by content size fitter

I have a parent gameobject(Empty) with a content size fitter with horizontal and vertical fit set to preferred size which is also a Horizontal Layout Group with Control Child size width and height enabled: enter image description here It has got a TextMeshPro text as child, and now, as the text expands the parent also expands. The problem is, I want to get the height of this parent. And if I use this:

var rect = parent.gameObject.GetComponent<RectTransform>.rect Debug.Log($  "Width: {rect.width}, height: {rect.height}"); 

or even,

var mValue = parent.gameObject.GetComponent<RectTransform>.sizeDelta; Debug.Log($  "sizeDeltax: {mValue.x}, sizeDeltaY: {mValue.y}"); 

they both give 0.

I require some way to extract the expanded width and height. How can I do that?

NOTE: The content of the child i.e. text is being assigned dynamically, also the parent/text is a prefab being instantiated dynamically i.e. via Instantiate, and this is not done in the start method.

SEO impact on using headless CMS for assets and images

So I have a Gatsby site with the content managed by Contentful. When I upload images and documents to Contentful, I’m supposed to retrieve those from images.ctfassets.net and assets.ctfassets.net respectively.

Previously, when all those assets are self-hosted, I can see Google is able to discover and index those. I would like to know will Google be able to discover and index those assets if I store them in CMS instead?

Edit

Another question, by default Contentful returns the URL of the assets as //images.ctfassets.net/... instead of https://images.ctfassets.net/..... Although I have no issue with linking and displaying these assets on my website, will it affect SEO?

unable to customize query to get filtered products by meta_key

i am new to wp and I tried to filter product inside archive-product.php woocommerce shop page by using product meta key and value but unable to do that. WordPress version i am using 5.8.1 and woocommerce version 5.5.2 . I also tried it by adding acf field in product post but still no response. here’s the code that i tried

$  q->set('meta_query', [      [         'key' => 'meta_key',   // used target meta key          'value' => 'meta_value',    // dynamic variable         'compare' => '='  // also used LIKE in compare       ]     ]);  

here is how i am using this code inside functions.php (child theme)file

function so_20990199_product_query( $  q ){      if (isset($  _GET['filterbyAge'])) {              $  q->set('meta_query', [             [                 'key' => 'book_age_group',                 'value' => $  _GET['filterbyAge'],                 'compare' => '='             ]         ]);     } } add_action( 'woocommerce_product_query', 'so_20990199_product_query' ); 

Why Paper Planners Are Better Than Digital Planners and Calendars

If you thought stickers were the preserve of toddlers’ books and playgrounds, think again. Branded stickers are now among the fashion industry’s most sought-after items, something to slap on laptops and lunchboxes as a way of conveying an affinity with a label at a fraction of the cost of buying its goods.

Last week, skateboard brand Palace released its winter sticker pack and it sold out within an hour. With other rare versions, such as a single Supreme x Playboy sticker, reselling online for as much as £200, the big-name fashion brands are also jumping on the bandwagon.

Calvin Klein Jeans recently made stickers using a classic 1980s image by Richard Avedon of Brooke Shields, while the fashion brand Coach has produced leather stickers, and Berlin’s hip o32c magazine featured sticker sheets from Louis Vuitton’s creative director, Virgil Abloh. A partnership between the luggage manufacturer Rimowa and Danish-Icelandic artist Olafur Eliasson yielded a limited edition of suitcase stickers that sold out immediately.

“It shows you’re part of a subculture,” said Dominik Pollin, of the Dover Street Market bookstore, Idea.

Michael Kopelman, managing director at Stüssy, said: “It’s fun. You can put them on your car or lunchbox. It’s like tagging. Most won’t notice it, but the people who are interested do spot it.”

Although councils in England and Wales restrict flyers and stickers in public places, they are increasingly appearing on lamp-posts and billboards across the country.

Alex Powis, co-founder of Stickerarchive, an online collection of popular graphics, said: “Slapping a sticker up … is instant, whereas graffiti takes time and guts. It’s like coded messaging.”

Traditionally not for sale by fashion labels, stickers have become an affordable way to tap into a brand. “There’s been a surge of interest in streetwear, lately and stickers are a core part of those cultures,” said Powis.

Sarah Andelman, founder of the French concept store Colette, is a collector herself. “I have about three boxes full of all kinds of stickers that I started keeping from the age of 15,” she said.

Instagram accounts such as Supstickers, dedicated to indexing and reselling stickers, have more than 50,000 followers. Edson Sabajo, CEO of Dutch streetwear brand Patta, said that sticker fans were taking part in the decades-old pastime of collecting.

“Ours reference the latest graphics and give you a memory about a certain timeframe. That’s why they’re always changing,” he said. “People collect them all.”

Others agree that the trend is a move away from the internet towards a more DIY approach. “In the last few months, I’ve been making more stickers,” said the electronic musician James Lavelle. “There’s something about having physical things that’s the opposite to a huge digital marketing campaign. There’s an authenticity about them.”

Why Paper Planners Are Better Than Digital Planners and Calendars

No matter if you’re a die-hard business person, freelance artist, stay-at-home parent or an office regular, you must have some sort of a system to plan, organize and prioritize your tasks and events. That system is crucial to getting things done – whether it stays on your Google calendar, all over your fridge on post-its, or on your paper planner.

The rise of digital devices has heavily diminished our habits of note taking, journaling and plan setting on paper. Do you even remember the last time you wrote down more than 2 sentences by hand? Whatever we do and wherever we go, we seem to never forget to take our phones with us. So, clearly, many are moving their organizational systems to the digital world. 

However, despite the trends, the industry of paper planners, agendas, and productivity journals seems to be well off. More and more people are interested in owning a paper agenda and using it daily. This time we wanted to take a deeper look at the matter – what really makes paper planners better than digital planners? What are the benefits?

We did some research and found 5 science-backed benefits you’d enjoy if you switched to paper planner. Also, gift boxes are better as paper, rather than digital ones.

How to Choose Luggage, Packs and Bags

Having the right type of luggage, pack or bag for your travels can make packing up and hopping on a plane or hitting the road easier and less stressful. But with so many styles to choose from, deciding which one is right for you can be a challenge. This article breaks down the different types of luggage and offers advice on choosing the right size, weight and level of durability. It also goes over features like wheels, laptop compartments and carry-on compatibility.

Types of Luggage, Bags and Packs
There are three broad categories of luggage: wheeled luggage, travel packs and travel duffels. When deciding which one is right for you, it can be helpful to think about things like where you’re going, how you’re getting there and what you plan to do when you get there.

Wheeled Luggage
The obvious advantage of luggage, packs and bags with wheels is how easy they are to transport through the airport and down smooth streets and sidewalks. There are three types of wheeled luggage: rolling luggage, wheeled duffels and wheeled backpacks.

Rolling luggage: Designed for traditional travelers, rolling luggage is what you see most people pulling behind them at an airport. They come in a range of sizes and typically feature sturdy construction made to handle the rigors of luggage transport systems. They are generally best for business travel, family visits, road trips and travel to urban areas.

Wheeled duffels: Nothing swallows up gear like a duffel bag, and one with wheels is a good choice for multisport travelers. If your adventures frequently require gear of widely varying sizes and shapes, a rolling duffel is a smart way to corral it all. For light packers, a carry-on wheeled duffel offers less space but allows you to forgo the time and expense of checking a luggage bags and cases. Wheeled duffels are a good choice for adventure travel requiring bulky or odd-shaped gear, family trips and road trips. To learn more about duffel options, read about travel duffels below.

Wheeled backpacks: Popular with adventure travelers, these combine the convenience of wheeled luggage with the mobility of a backpack. You can transport lots of gear with a simple pull of the extendable handle. Facing heavy foot traffic or a long flight of stairs? Strap on the shoulder straps and hip belt for hands-free carrying convenience. Wheeled backpacks are typically best for adventure travel and road trips. To learn more about backpacks, see the travel packs section below.

Travel Duffels
These range from basic duffels that you throw over a shoulder to wheeled duffels with extendable handles (to learn about wheeled duffels, see the Wheeled Luggage section of this article.) The primary advantage of duffels over other options is their simple design. They’re easy to use and generally feature one large space for packing your gear and clothing. Of course, this could be a disadvantage if you’re the super-organized type who needs separate pockets and compartments to stay sane. (One way to stay organized in a duffel is to pack your things in travel cubes or stuff sacks.)

Duffel bags, or tote bags, are available in many sizes, from compact carry-on handbags that have a capacity of 20–30 liters and will hold a weekend’s worth of clothes on up to massive duffels that hold 100 liters or more for adventures that require tons of gear.

Traditional duffel bags that don’t have wheels might seem old-fashioned given how easy wheels can make transport. But, for adventures to remote places with bumpy, unpaved streets, wheels will be more trouble than they are worth, and they will add several pounds to the overall weight of the bag. Not only are traditional duffels lighter, they are also more pliable than those that have wheels, making them easier to stuff in the backs of cars, load onto roof racks or strap to a pack animal. These duffels are also easier to store (no rigid parts, so they fold up smaller) and typically less expensive. They are a great option for climbers, adventure travelers and people on a budget who need to haul a lot of gear. Bags can also be used as cosmetic bags and cases, cooler bags, and shopping bags, etc.

Travel Packs
These travel-friendly backpacks excel where wheeled luggage cannot: on gravel, cobblestone streets, stairs and other uneven terrain. Travel packs are like other backpacks in terms of how you wear them and the support they provide, but they have travel-specific features, such as organization pockets, hideaway hipbelts and shoulder straps, and built-in security features, like lockable zippers. They are ideal for travelers who want to be very mobile and are okay with carrying everything on their backs.

How to Determine the Right Size Luggage, Pack or Bag

The right size luggage, bag or pack depends on things like trip length, type of trip and your packing habits. Buying a bag that’s larger than you need may seem like a good idea, but we recommend against this because you’ll be tempted to fill up any extra space you have.

Here are some things to consider when determining what size bag to get:

Consider the length and type of trip you’re taking. Are you going on a serious adventure that requires tents, sleeping bags, stoves, climbing gear and more? If so, you’re going to need a large bag (or several) to haul all that. But, if you’re going on a simple weekend getaway that requires a couple changes of clothes and toiletries, then a compact bagpack will work just fine.

Here are some approximate guidelines to give you a sense of luggage and duffel sizes (by volume in liters) and how much they can accommodate:

30-50 liters: In general, luggage that has a capacity of about 50 liters or less is sufficient for a weekend trip. There are lots of carry-on duffels, packs and bags in this size range to choose from.
50-75 liters: For a trip that lasts one to two weeks, many people jump up to a bag in this range.
75 liters-100+ liters: For big expeditions, travelers typically need several large bags that can hold 75 liters or more each. (Keep in mind, of course, that the larger the bag, the heavier it is to haul. Multiple smaller bags might be easier to transport.
Are you a minimalist packer or do you bring along lots of extras? Some people can get by with a compact carry-on bag for a trip that lasts weeks, while others need to check a bag for a weekend getaway. Packing light has its advantages, like making it easy to maneuver in crowded places and avoiding checked baggage fees; to learn how to pack light, see our article, Tips for Traveling Light.

Remember carry-on restrictions if you don’t plan to check your bags. Many airline travelers strive to pack everything into a single carry-on bag to avoid the expense and hassle of checking a bag. If this is your goal, then pay close attention to luggage dimensions. Most airlines allow carry-on bags no larger than 45 linear inches when adding the length, width and height. For instance, a bag that’s 22 inches x 14 inches x 9 inches totals 45 inches. Rules can change, and sometimes vary by airline, so be sure to check with your airline about size limits (or other baggage regulations) before departure.

Industry Developments: Extrusion Profile Heat Sinks

Industry Developments: Extrusion Profile Heat Sinks

    Extruded metal heat sinks are among the lowest cost, widest used heat spreaders in electronics thermal management. Besides their affordability, extruded heat sinks are lightweight, readily cut to size and shape, and capable of high levels of cooling.

    Most extruded heat sinks are made from aluminum alloys, mainly from the 6000 alloy series, where aluminum dominates. Trace amounts of other elements are added, including magnesium and silicon. These alloys are easy to extrude and machine, are weldable, and can be hardened.

    Common alloys for extruded heat sinks are the 6063 metals. These can be extruded as complex shapes, with very smooth surfaces. 6061 aluminum is also used for extrusions. Its tensile strength (up to 240 MPa) is superior to 6063 alloys (up to 186 MPa). In addition to heat sinks, these aluminum alloys are popular for architectural applications such as window and door frames.&nbsp;

    The surfaces of these metals can be anodized to replace their naturally occurring surface layer of aluminum oxide. Anodizing provides more heat transfer, corrosion resistance and better adhesion for paint primers. It is an electrochemical process that increases surface emissivity, corrosion and wear resistance, and electrical isolation.

    The Extruding Process

    Aluminum alloys are popular for extruding as heat sinks because they provide both malleability and formability. They can be easily machined and are as little as one-third the density of steel. This results in extrusions that are both strong and stable, at a reduced cost relative to other materials.

    The aluminum extrusion process starts with designing and creating the die that will shape the heatsink extrusion. Once this has been done, a cylindrical billet of aluminum is heated up in a forge to high temperatures, generally between 800-925°F (427-496°C). Next, a lubricant is added to the aluminum to prevent it from sticking to any of the machinery. It is then placed on a loader and pressure is applied with a ram to push heated aluminum through the die.

    During this process, nitrogen is added in order to prevent oxidation. The extruded part will pass completely through the die and out the other side. It has now been elongated in the shape of the die opening. The finished extrusion is then cooled, and if necessary, a process of straightening and hardening creates the finished product.

    They can be cut to the desired lengths, drilled and machined, and undergo a final aging process before being ready for market. [4]

    Finished heat sinks typically come with anodized surfaces, which can enhance their thermal performance. Alternatively, a chromate finish provides some corrosion protection, or can be used as a primer before a final paint or powder coating is applied. [5]

    Shapes of Extruded Heat Sinks

    Extrusions tooling heat sink profiles range from simple flat back fin structures to complex geometries for optimized cooling. They can be used for natural (passive) or forced convection (active) with an added fan or blower. Extruded profiles can also include special geometries and groove patterns for use with clip or push pin attachment systems.

    6063 aluminum alloy has a thermal conductivity of 201-218 W/(mK). Higher tensile strength 6061 aluminum’s thermal conductivity ranges from 151-202 W/(mK).

    Besides choosing the aluminum alloy, selecting an optimal extruded heat sink should factor in its overall dimensions and weight, the specified thermal resistance, and the extrusion shape (flat-back, flat-back with gap, hollow, double-sided, etc.). [7]

    Extruded heat sinks can be designed with very thin, and thus more, fins than other sink types. They can be extruded with aspect ratios of around 8:1, which can greatly optimize heat sink performance. A heat sink’s aspect ratio is basically the comparison of its fin height to the distance between its fins.

    In typical heat sinks the aspect ratio is between 3:1 and 5:1. A high aspect extruded heat sink has taller fins with a smaller distance between them for a ratio that can be 8:1 to 16:1 or greater.

    Linear Cellular Alloys (LCAs) are metal honeycombs that are extruded using powder metal-oxide precursors and chemical reactions to obtain near fully dense metallic cell walls. Either ordered periodic or graded cell structures can be formed. In this work, the performance of heat sinks fabricated from stochastic cellular metals is compared to that of LCA heat sinks. Flash diffusivity experiments are performed to determine the in situ thermal properties of cell wall material. The pressure drop for unidirectional fluid flow in the honeycomb channels and the total heat transfer rate of LCA heat sinks are experimentally measured. These measurements are compared to values predicted from a finite difference code and commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software.

    A three-dimensional finite element model of a multichip module (MCM) has been developed by using ANSYS? finite element simulation code. The model has been used for thermal characterization of the module. In addition, optimum dimensions of an external heat sink, which maintains the specified device’s junction temperature within desired operating temperature limits, are determined as functions of air flow rate and power density of surrounding semiconductor devices. Parametric studies have been performed to study the effects of heat sink height, width and length on junction-to-ambient thermal resistance of a high power application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) device found in the MCM assembly. A set of curves are generated to select either heat sink dimensions or air speed for a given design requirements. Influence of the power output of surrounding devices on the thermal performance of the high power ASIC device is also assessed. The predicted results indicate that the ASIC device’s junction temperature as well as junction-to-ambient resistance increase as the power of the surrounding packages increases. This effect diminishes if a sufficiently large heat sink is used to cool the package.

    There are different metals with different properties, some metals are used for luxury purposes such as diamond and gold, others are used for building purposes such as brass, nickel, steel, copper, and many more. Every piece of equipment, to work efficiently, requires a good building block. And while engineering important components it is extremely important to look at the qualities of the material that are going to be used and it is also important to keep a check on the factors that can affect the material, Aluminium in this case.

    Aluminum is considered the best option for engineering heat sinks because it is cost-friendly, lightweight and most importantly has great thermal conductivity.

    Which Metals Conduct Heat The Best?

    Copper and Aluminium among other metals have the highest thermal conductivity. Before using metal in any sort of application it is very important to check the thermal conductivity of that metal. The rate of thermal conductivity helps to decide which metal should be used for a specific purpose. Aluminum is a great conductor of heat, which makes it useful for constructing heat exchangers. On the other hand, steel is a very poor conductor of heat which makes it useful for high-temperature environments. This is why Aluminum is preferred to be used in constructing a heat sink.

    Thermal Conductivity

    Heat transfers in three ways; radiation, convection, and conduction. Thermal Conduction is a process where two objects of different temperatures come into contact with one another and when they meet fast-moving molecules from the warmer object transfer the energy to the slow-moving molecules in the cooler object.

    Aluminum heat sinks

    Aluminum is considered beneficial for electrical device managers. It is a great metal to be used in the construction of critical power cooling systems. Improvement in extrusion profile technology has made it possible to engineer heat sinks which call for a blend of greater strength and lighter weight.

    Aluminum in comparison with other metals such as copper has lower thermal conductivity but it is far too difficult to extrude them into the shape of a heat sink. Secondly, Aluminium is a lightweight metal, which is also another property that other metals do not possess.

    Heat Sinks

    Heat sinks are mainly used inside computers to cool down the CPU(Central Processing Unit), they are also used in lighting devices, LEDs, and power transistors.

    Heat sinks are designed in a way to have a large surface area to maximize the contact with the fluid medium, such as air or liquid coolant to absorb heat and direct it away from the device.

    Aluminum alloys are preferred to be used in constructing heat sinks. This is because Aluminium is lighter and cheaper than copper.

    How does a heat sink work?

    Computers heat up and if the heat is not removed from the device it can actually damage the entire system. To direct the heat away from the system it is necessary to install a heat exchanger. Heat sink directs the heat away from the computer, it does this by transferring the heat generated in the system to a fluid medium such as air or a liquid coolant, whereby it is directed away from the device.&nbsp;

    What is the purpose of a heat sink?

    The purpose of a CPU heatsink is basically the maintenance of the computer. Without a heat sink, the system can overheat and therefore can stop working efficiently. To ensure smooth working of the device it is important to install a heat sink to direct generated heat away from the system and prevent overheating.

    Why is a heat sink important?

    As stated above, a skived fin heatsink is vital for extending the life of a lighting device. It absorbs unnecessary heat and directs it away from the device. Heat sinks increase the efficiency of the device by removing the excess heat which is why it is an extremely important component. Without a heat sink, computers or other related devices can expire quicker. Heat sinks keep the system cool and provide a good working environment to the other components which heat up quite quickly.

    Factors Affecting Aluminum Heat Sink Quality

    Quality Requirements For Ingots

    The blend of alloys in an ingot must be strictly monitored and controlled, for purification purposes. To make sure that the structure and properties are not imbalanced it is important to make sure that the alloys are homogenized. The surface of the ingot must be smooth and there must not be any sand. The end of the ingot must be flat.

The Importance of Your Car’s Wheel Bearings

The Importance of Your Car’s Wheel Bearings

    A wheel bearing is a crucial part of the wheel assembly that connects the wheel and the axle. It is a set of steel balls (ball bearings) or tapers (tapered bearings), held together by a metal ring. It enables the wheel to rotate smoothly with a minimum of friction. Wheel bearings are safety critical components designed to sustain radial and axial loads caused by gravitation, acceleration, breaking & cornering forces, so they need to be replaced when they stop working properly.

    Faulty installation – inappropriate tools such as a hammer or an impact wrench can cause damage to the exterior and or interior of the wheel end bearing causing the wheel bearing to fail prematurely.&nbsp; Also, re-using the old accessories such as bolts, nuts, circlips, split pins, seals,… instead of replacing them with new ones can cause the wheel end bearing to operate under abnormal or unsafe conditions, increasing wheel end bearing wear and risk of a car accident.&nbsp;

    Impact damage or poor road quality – all impacts from driving through a pothole, driving over speed bumps or hitting the curbstone can damage a wheel bearing and reduce its lifespan.

    Poor quality wheel bearing – a wheel bearing is continuously under enormous pressure. Wheel bearings constructed of low-quality materials can have poor heat-treatment, resulting in premature wear and failure.

    Driving conditions – driving through deep water or mud can cause your wheel bearings to fail. Water, mud or other contaminants such as dust or road salt could get past the seals and enter the bearing, polluting the grease and wearing away the bearings.

    Car modifications – fitting bigger or wider rims, tires with lower thread walls, stiffer shock absorbers and suspension springs cause higher loads on the wheel bearing and can accelerate wear. Stick to rims, tires, shock absorbers and springs that are specified by the car manufacturer to minimize the impact on the longevity of the wheel bearings.

    It’s very rare for wheel bearings to fail immediately and completely after you notice the first symptom(s).&nbsp;

    Having said that, it is best to avoid driving with a worn wheel bearing for any length of time. As we’ve already seen, the wheel bearing is essential for connecting your wheel to your car, and any weakness in this connection could have severe consequences for your drive-axle and steering assembly – as well as for your safety.

    Replacing your wheel bearings

    Despite the fact that modern auto bearing are easier to install than previous generations, correct installation, the usage of appropriate tools and respecting the specified torque values are still essential for maximum performance, durability and safety. Therefore, we recommend having your wheel bearings fitted by a professional mechanic that has the skills and the tools to do the job.&nbsp;&nbsp;

    The content contained in this article is for entertainment and informational purposes only and should not be used in lieu of seeking professional advice from a certified technician or mechanic. We encourage you to consult with a certified technician or mechanic if you have specific questions or concerns relating to any of the topics covered herein. Under no circumstances will we be liable for any loss or damage caused by your reliance on any content.

    The increasing preference for personal mobility in the post-COVID period will boost the growth of automobiles and components such as agriculture machinery bearing. Additionally, the Indian automotive bearings market is expected to benefit from the shift of production lines of the global automotive bearings manufacturers to the emerging economies.

    Nachi-Fujikoshi, a prominent manufacturer of automotive bearings, has announced its plan to move its production of general-purpose bearings from Japan and Taiwan to Thailand. The move is to reduce production costs for automotive bearings. The recent introduction of production-linked incentive (PLI) schemes for automotive components by the government of India will play a crucial role in attracting global players to set up manufacturing facilities in India.

    The growing demand for light-weight and durable bearings from the automotive industry is leading the prominent bearing manufacturers such as SKF India, Schaeffler India, and NRB Bearings to focus on adopting new raw materials, instead of traditional high-grade steel. For instance, SKF India is manufacturing automotive bearings with alloys that are 10%-12% lighter than traditional bearings made from high-grade steel. The vendors are increasing spending on R&D for the development of lightweight technology. In 2019, Schaeffler India spent 1.34% of revenue on R & D.

    Auto mechanics all over the country take advantage of the public’s limited knowledge about automotive mechanics and engineering. Many drivers assume that their mechanic knows more about the subject of what’s going on with their cars than they do, and feel they have no choice but to trust their “expert” opinions. This happens frequently with recommended part replacements—especially with wheel bearings.

    Wheel bearings play an integral role in your car’s overall functioning and performance. Wheel bearings can indeed become damaged or worn out over time, and under these circumstances it is critical to replace them if need be. However, this is one of the opportunities that automotive shops seize to upsell their product and services. If you’ve ever heard the phrase, “well, if you’ve replaced one you should replace the other” then you’ve likely overpaid for automotive services. In this article, we’ll talk about the importance of wheel bearings for your car. We’ll also discuss when industrial bearing should realistically be replaced and what you can do to keep your car in excellent condition moving forward.

    Wheel bearings are critical for your car’s performance. They reside inside a wheel to help the wheel rotate smoothly and competently by decreasing the amount of friction created by other various parts of the drivetrain system. When wheel bearings become damaged or require replacement, it can lead to devastating effects if not replaced properly. When wheel bearings are not replaced with the proper tools, equipment, and attention to detail, it can cause further, more significant damage to the part over time. Bearing assemblies are a simple mechanical design, but their function is essential to the smooth rotation of your wheels. When one wheel bearing goes bad, it can cause a concerning noise coming from your wheel, especially at higher speeds, and it can cause other gradual side effects to your alignment and wheel balance.

    When Wheel Bearings Need to Be Replaced

    Wheel bearings are made of tough, durable material, which means that they generally last a long time in cars. However, they can still require replacement under the right circumstances. If you have noticed any strange noises coming from your wheel as you’re driving, consider if any of the following could apply to your car:

    Accident Damage

    Although wheel bearings are sturdy parts alone, the impact from an accident can cause the auto wheel bearing to become damaged. After the rough impact of a car accident, especially if the accident was a side impact, it’s common to encounter broken seals in the bearing assembly, which leads to a contaminated bearing. When grease gets inside through a broken seal, it causes too much friction, which can chip the bearings and cause them to begin to malfunction.

    Improper Installation

    Wheel bearings need to be replaced under somewhat rare circumstances, including when they are replaced improperly to begin with. Whenever a wheel bearing or a bearing assembly is replaced, the wheels should be balanced and aligned in order to prevent further damage. This can save you a lot of money in the long run, all you need to do is find an honest mechanic!

    Engineering Defect

    Automotive engineering is not a perfect science; many vehicle parts come with defects and wear issues. Cars that are well designed generally have fewer defects, but some cars were simply manufactured with a propensity for wheel bearing issues somewhere throughout the course of the vehicle’s life.

    Usually automotive shops recommend that if one wheel bearing becomes damaged that the corresponding wheel’s bearing should also be replaced (i.e. front driver’s side and front passenger’s side). While this might make sense for the sake of symmetry, depending on the condition of the other wheel bearing it is usually not necessary to replace both for this reason alone. Here at Santa Barbara Autowerks we pride ourselves on honesty and integrity; we don’t offer services or replacements to our clients unless they’re necessary for their safety or will save them money and energy in the future. As one of the highest quality leading dealership alternatives in Santa Barbara, CA, we tailor our services to German-engineered vehicles, making us experts in German vehicle repair and maintenance. We are passionate about and highly experienced in working with cars like Audi, BMW, Mercedes, Porsche, MINI, and Volkswagen. If you think your German car’s wheel bearing might need to be replaced, please contact us for an honest, expert opinion without a hidden agenda.

Cistanches Herba: A Neuropharmacology Review

Cistanches Herba: A Neuropharmacology Review

    Cistanche extract products (family Orobanchaceae), commonly known as “desert ginseng” or Rou Cong Rong, is a global genus and commonly used for its neuroprotective, immunomodulatory, anti-oxidative, kidney impotence, laxative, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, and anti-tumor effects in traditional herbal formulations in North Africa, Arabic, and Asian countries. The major bioactive compound present in this plant is phenylethanoid glycosides. In recent years, there has been great important in scientific investigation of the neuropharmacological effects of the bioactive compounds. The in vitro and in vivo studies suggests these compounds demonstrate neuropharmacological activities against a wide range of complex nervous system diseases which occurs through different mechanisms include improving immunity function and kidney aging, anti-lipid peroxidation, scavenging free radical, inducing the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-8. This review aims to summaries the various neuropharmacological effects and mechanisms of Cistanches Herba extracts and related compounds, including its efficacy as a cure for Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease with reference to the published literature. Which provides guidance for further research on the clinical application of Cistanches Herba.

    Introduction

    Cistanches Herba, the dried stem of Cistanches species Cistanche deserticola Y.C.Ma (Figure 1) and Cistanche raw materials, is recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopeia (Committee, 2015). Other non-official species, such as C. sinensis Beck and C. salsa (C. A. Mey) Beck, are also used as Cistanches Herba in certain regions of China due to resource shortage. Cistanches Herba is one of the most valuable herbal drugs in traditional Chinese medicine, which supplements kidney functions, boosts the essence of blood, and moistens the large intestines to free stool (Medicine, 2005). Therefore, it is called “desert ginseng” in China because of the excellent medicinal functions and nourishing effects (Wang et al., 2012). Cistanches Herba, a global genus of holoparasitic desert plant, which is primarily endemic in North Africa, Arabic, and Asian countries (Nan et al., 2013). The primary producing areas of Cistanches Herba in China are Inner Mongolia and the provinces of Xinjiang, Gansu and Qinghai.

    Several chemical groups were isolated from Cistanches Herba, including PhGs (Figure 1), lignans, iridoids, and polysaccharides (Chen et al., 2013). Pharmacological studies demonstrated that Cistanches Herba exhibits neuroprotective, kidney impotence, laxative, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, anti-oxidative, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, and anti-tumor effects (Hu and Feng, 2012). And our previous studies have distinguished Cistanches Herba from different geographic origins using a combination of DNA barcoding and UPLC-Q-TOF/MS technology.

    The Consumer Price Indexdatabase of China reports that 58 drugs from 12 different groups, including glycosides of Cistanche capsules and compound Cistanche Yizhicapsules, are authorized for the treatment of AD. Cistanches Herba wine and tea are produced in Alashan, Inner Mongolia, China, which might assist in Runchang catharsis and enhance the immune, endocrine regulation, and anti-aging systems of the body. Boschnalosides used as a therapeutic agent in Japan to treat sexual dysfunction and amnesia, and echinacoside is used in healthcare products in the United States to improve immunity (Cheng et al., 2005).

    Some researchers recently focused on the neuroprotective effects of Cistanche health products, but these effects have not been studied thoroughly (Table 1). This review presents and analyzes recent developments in the neuropharmacology of Cistanches Herba and provides a reference for the further study and clinical application of this medicinal plant.

    Cistanches Herba medicines have a long history of practical use, but scientists worldwide only began to disclose their chemical composition in the1980s. Figure 2 shows an analysis of the related literature. The cumulative histogram shows the number of studies increased over time, and the Chinese literature occupies the greatest proportion, which reveals the potential research value of Cistanches Herba. Figure 2A shows that the neuropharmacology related literature occupies the largest proportion of the nine areas of pharmacology, and this topic has become the most important area for research. Figure 2B exhibits the chemical research diversity of Cistanches Herba, with a substantial proportion of research on content determination. Further research may focus on neuropharmacology and component content.

    Cistanches Herba has a long history as a medicinal plant in China and Japan because of its wide spectrum of pharmacological activities. It is commonly called Rou Cong Rong in Chinese, and it was first listed medicinal use as a tonic agent in the Chinese Materia Medica Shen Nong’s Herbal Classic (Estern Han Dynasty) 2000 years ago, and later recorded in Yao Xing Lun in 1590. The Compendium of Materia Medica (Ben Cao Gang Mu, 1619) documented that Cistanches Herba invigorated the kidney to treat kidney deficiencies and geriatric constipation strengthened and nourished marrow and essence, protected semen, and moistened dryness to relax the bowels.&nbsp;

    These properties were also written in Ben Cao Hui Yan in 1619. A total of 200 medicinal books recorded the pharmacodynamics and use of Cistanches Herba in Chinese history. Cistanches Herba ranks first in Chinese traditional medicine to strengthen prescriptions, which ranks second in anti-aging prescriptions at the same time, behind Panax ginseng in past dynasties. Modern pharmacological investigations demonstrated that Cistanches Herba was used as a kidney-yang reinforcing Chinese medicinal tonic, but it is also exhibits anti-aging, improves memory, and enhances immunity effects (Table 1), which indicate that extracts or constituents from Cistanches Herba have a promising future for the treatment of diseases, particularly nervous system disorders. However, systematic data on the pharmacological activities of this agent is lacking. It is urgent and important to study the pharmacological effects and mechanisms of Cistanches Herba deeply in the future.

    Aging is an inevitable process of life. This process involves a series of degenerative changes in tissues and organ functions with advancing age. Studies on aging and anti-aging medicines have made significant progress in recent years. Therefore, anti-aging drugs are a current and prominent issue in gerontology. The aging process reflects a confluence of in vivo and in vitro factors. Aging is closely related to type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, and AD. Aging is also related to the decreased regeneration of cells, viscera deficiency, increased free radicals, body poisoning, and lack of rhythm when eating (Lopez-Otin et al., 2013). Aging is an inevitable process, but delaying this process is now possible.

    Several historical Chinese herbal pharmacopeias describe that Cistanche tubulosa supplements possesses anti-aging properties. PhGs and oligosaccharides are two types compounds isolated from Cistanches Herba that are the main active ingredients of this plant. In vivo studies established an aging mouse model caused by D-galactose. The mice were divided into normal control, model, Vitamin E and total glycoside groups, and all groups received different doses of various materials. The results suggested that the glycosides exhibited protective effects on the hippocampal ultrastructure, and glycosides may play a role in the delay of aging and the prevention and treatment of senile dementia via anti-oxidation (Wang X. et al., 2015). Xu et al. investigated the protective effect of Cistanches Herba alcohol extract on hepatic mitochondria and established an aging rat model caused by D-galactose. Rats were administered Cistanches Herba alcohol extract for 6 weeks. The results indicated that Ca2+-ATP enzyme activity was enhanced, and the MDA content in the hepatic mitochondria was reduced. These results further suggested that the Cistanches Herba alcohol extract effectively protected hepatic mitochondria in the D-galactose aging rat model (Xu et al., 2007). Xu and Liu (2008) examined the anti-aging effect of PhGs isolated from Cistanches Herba. The results confirmed that the PhGs improved learning and memory, exhibited antioxidant activity, and boosted the immune system. The results also demonstrated that the PhGs exhibited anti-aging effects via enhancement of anti-oxidation. The mechanism may be related to the free radical scavenging ability of PhGs. Polysaccharides of Cistanches Herba exhibit the same function as PhGs on anti-aging (Xu et al., 2008; Zhang et al., 2011). Zhang et al. (2014) also investigated a Cistanches Herba extraction 2014 and found that this extract extended life span. The results of studies on echinacoside and acteoside suggest that these components exhibit positive anti-aging effects (Zhang et al., 2008; Xie et al., 2009). Many studies of anti-aging involve Cistanches Herba, but these works are limited because the anti-aging mechanism is not known. There are three possible pathways to anti-aging, including improving immunity function and kidney aging, anti-lipid peroxidation. Immune theory of aging said that the decline of immune function is closely related to the aging organism. Thus, the immune function of the body can indirectly reflect the aging organism in a certain extent. The raised index of thymus and spleen, increased content of IFN-γin serum and decreased content of IL-6, increased capacity of peritoneal macrophage phagocytic and lymphocyte proliferation response always can improve the immunity aging, and then delay the organism aging. The expression of p53 from human fibroblastic cell down-regulated significantly in a dose dependent manner after treatment with echinacoside, and which may be correlated with the up-regulation of SIRT1. The PhGs can scavenge different ROS, including. O–2, H2O2 and ?OH, effectively and protect DNA damage through scavenging ?OH. In addition, the PhGs also can increase the content of RNS- NO, and then reduce the lipid peroxidation. Therefore, the real effective components of Cistanches Herba and what a role in anti-aging are important and appealing future research directions.

    Anti-oxidative and Anti-apoptotic Activity

    Cistanches Herba exhibits anti-oxidative, free radical-scavenging and anti-apoptotic activity via different mechanisms. Recent studies demonstrated the anti-oxidant activity of Cistanches Herba, particularly in the clearing of all types of free radicals in vivo and in vitro, improvement in the activity of anti-oxidant enzymes in the body, and inhibition of the formation of lipid peroxide, MDA, and brown fat (Wang et al., 2001; Wu and Fu, 2004; Luo et al., 2012; Song, 2013). Current studies demonstrated that cell apoptosis or programmed cell death is determined by heredity and is related to oxidation (Martin, 2011). Deng used the MTT assay to examine cell survival rate, agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA, and flow cytometry to detect cell apoptosis. The results suggested that the echinacoside extracted from Cistanches Herba exhibited protective effects on TNFα-induced SH-SY5Y cell apoptosis (Deng et al., 2005). Nerve cell protection exhibits a close connection with the reduction of active oxygen levels in cells, inhibition of caspasc-3 activity and maintenance of a high-energy state of mitochondrial membrane potential. Bao et al. (2010) investigated an extract of Cistanche tubulosa and discussed its anti-oxidant ability. These researchers conducted an in vitro study to compare the anti-oxidative properties of methanol and ethanol extracts. The results suggested that the two extracts exhibited high anti-oxidant ability, and 70% ethanol was the best extraction agent of C. tubulosa to ensure improved anti-oxidant activity (Bao et al., 2010). The PhGs from Cistanches Herba are considered the effective ingredients for anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic activity in recent studies. The anti-oxidant mechanism is mainly related to the radical-scavenging activity. PhGs compounds, which are mostly provided with different amounts of phenolic hydroxyl, can be used as hydrogen donor to reductive radicals, and then reach to the purpose of radical scavenging. The herbal cistanches extract powder scavenge the free radicals mainly in two ways, including directly involving in the removal of free radicals or blocking their production and regulating the anti-oxidant enzymes related to the free radical metabolism in vivo, such as SOD, CAT and GPX (Ko and Leung, 2007). For another, the Glycosides of Cistanches Herba can prevent the apoptosis of cerebellar granule neurons by inhibiting the activities of caspase-3 and caspase-8. Therefore, the good oxidation resistance and anti-aging ability of Cistanches Herba may be applied to cosmetics. This application may be a new research direction in the future.

    Learning and Memory Enhancement

    Learning and memory are advanced functions of the brain, and these functions are important factors in determining intelligence. Learning and memory impairment is a common symptom in different types of encephalopathy, such as attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder in childhood, adolescent chorea, lobar atrophy disease, neurosis, senile cerebral arteriosclerosis, and dementia. Medicinal research demonstrated that the impairment of learning and memory is closely related to the impairment of synaptic transmission in the brain and the metabolism of neurotransmitters, other substances, and energy in the brain (Chen, 1993). Modern pharmacological studies determined that Cistanches Herba significantly improves learning and memory, and PhGs are the active chemical ingredients of this effect.

    Traditional Chinese medicine shows that learning and memory dysfunction exists in the Yang deficiency model of the spleen and kidney. Therefore, these two models are more suitable for the study of tonics in traditional Chinese medicine. Gao et al. (2005) examined the effects of Cistanches Herba glycosides on the learning and memory of kidney Yang deficiency mice. The results of this study demonstrated that the Yang deficiency symptoms of each dose group improved, and the number of animal deaths decreased significantly. However, the jumping latency of each dose group after hydrocortisone administration was significantly prolonged, and the number of errors during a 5-min period was reduced. Therefore, glycosides improved the learning and memory of kidney Yang deficiency mice induced by hydrocortisone and reduced the death rate of these animals (Gao et al., 2005). The current researchers established a scopolamine-induced learning and memory impairment mouse model to investigate the effects of the PhGs of Cistanches Herba. The results demonstrated that the PhGs of Cistanches Herba enhanced learning and memory (Li, 2011; Liu et al., 2011). Choi et al. (2011) also demonstrated that Cistanches Herba enhanced learning and memory via the induction of nerve growth factor. Vary factors related to cerebrovascular disease induce vascular dementia. This condition is an acquired intelligence-damaging syndrome of cognitive impairment, which is a primary type of senile dementia. Ischemic cerebrovascular disease occurs frequently in many cerebrovascular diseases induced by vascular dementia. Traditional medicine and modern pharmacology demonstrated that PhGs play an active role in neuroprotection (Feng et al., 2013; Liu et al., 2013; Zhu et al., 2013; Zhang, 2014). The reason why Cistanches Herba extract can improve learning and memory is partly due to neuronal cell differentiation, neurite outgrowth and presynaptic formation promoted. Cistanches Herba also improved cognitive behavior related to memory ability. Therefore, Cistanches Herba is a potential candidate for cognitive enhancement owing to its action as a nerve growth factor modulator. However, extensive research is necessary to discover the neuroprotective mechanism deeply. Further studies to determine the specific type of PhGs are expected to play a leading role in improving learning and addressing memory impairment.

What are lenticular images, and why do they look so awesome?

What are lenticular images, and why do they look so awesome?

    Every day, there are hundreds—perhaps even thousands—of advertising messages knocking on your head trying to gain access to the part of your brain that decides to buy things. With so much money at stake, it's hardly surprising that advertisers go to such extraordinary lengths to catch our attention. The only trouble is, our brains habituate: they quickly get used to seeing the same thing over and over again. So the advertisers have to keep thinking of new tricks to stay one step ahead. One of their latest ideas is to print posters, magazines, and book covers with lenticulars—images that seem to change as you move your head. Let's take a closer look at how they work!

    Nothing! Lentils are tiny orange, green, or brown pulses popular with vegetarians and—no—they have nothing to do with how book covers work. The connection between &quot;lentil&quot; and &quot;lenticular&quot; is simply a matter of words. Lenticulars are so-called because they use lenses, which are pieces of plastic or glass that bend (or &quot;refract&quotWink light to make things look bigger or smaller. Lenses got their name because some of them just happen to look a bit like lentils! You can find more in our main article on lenses (we even tell you how to make a lens of your own, in about 5 seconds flat, from a drop of water).

    How do you make something like our book cover up above? You take your two different images and load them into a computer graphics program. The program cuts each image into dozens of thin strips and weaves them together so the strips from the first image alternate with the strips from the second. This process is called interlacing. If you look at the doubled-up image printed this way, it's just a horribly confusing mess, but not for long! Next, you place a transparent plastic layer on top of the doubled-up image. This is made of dozens of separate thin, hemi-spherical lenses called lenticles. These refract (bend) the light passing through them so, whichever side you're looking from, you see only half the printed strips. Move your head back and forth and the image flips back and forth too like a kind of &quot;visual see-saw&quot;.

    For all this to work properly, everything has to be printed with incredible precision. The lenticles have to be exactly the same size as the printed strips underneath them and lined up with them exactly. Not only that, the image has to be adjusted and printed so that it looks exactly right when viewed through a certain piece of lenticular poster(with a certain &quot;pitch&quot;—or number of lenticles per inch) at a certain viewing distance. (That's a fiddly technical process and I won't go into the details here, but you can find out more in the articles and videos in the further reading section below.)

    Nothing says lenticulars have to flip back and forth between just two images: some have as many as 20 different images or &quot;frames&quot; (as they're sometimes called, using the language of moviemaking). You could have half a dozen different images designed to point in slightly different directions, so an advertising poster slowly and subtly changes its message as you walk past! You can also use lenticulars to create amazing 3D images similar to holograms.

    For a basic flip image that changes as you move your head, you need to arrange the lenticles so both eyes always see the same image; as you move your head, both eyes then switch simultaneously to the other image. Adding more images, it's possible to create a basic illusion of movement (a bit like a flip book) and a zooming effect, so the image appears to get closer or further away as you move the flip lenticular poster back and forth. With a slightly different arrangement of lenticles, arranged vertically, we can send one image to one eye and the alternate interleaved image to the other, giving the illusion of a three-dimensional picture.

    Lenticular images are the neato transforming pictures that often came on trading cards in the 1980s and 90s. They were handy for freaking out young children or filing your nails. Turn them one way and they show one picture. Turn them another and they show another. How? A trick of the light. And plastics.

    Lenticular images are the kind of things they used to give out as free promotional material. They were best suited to things like trading cards of Transformers, because when looked at from one position, the card would display an image of the untransformed robot, while from another angle, it would display the image of whatever it transformed into. (On the back could be a description of why transformers transformed into cars with passenger compartments even when there weren't people to be passengers on their world.) The cards were covered with a piece of ridged plastic.

    The images take advantage of light's tendency to bend, and only bend a certain amount. The ridges of plastic essentially 'block' parts of the image from the viewer. Light from certain parts of the image is reflected or bent away from the viewer. Each ridge, across the page, directs certain slices of the image back to the viewer. As the viewer moves, they are exposed to different parts of the ridges and see different slices of the page.

    The image underneath the ridges is a series of interlaced slices – a little like a colored bar code. Each slice matches up with a section of ridge, and the slices come together to make the full image. Early lenticular images generally only had two pictures and flipped back and forth. More modern ones will be a little more complicated, with many different images, each corresponding to a different segment on the ridge. Some will even present a 3D picture, by showing slightly different image slices to each eye. For example the right eye could see one angle of a face, and the left eye could see another. This is how the eyes regularly build 3D images in the mind, and so the two images combine into a 3D picture. All it takes it the right kind of sectioning, and, of course, plastic.

    This dialogue by Shakespeare very likely refers to 5D lenticular pictures — those accordion-pleated creations that show different images when you look at them from the left or right. In Shakespeare’s time and in the 20th century, lenticulars were manufactured as amusing distractions. Today, the technique is finding a home in fine art — including this month at The Art League.

    One of the first examples of a lenticular picture still in existence is the Double Portrait of King Frederik IV and Queen Louise of Mecklenburg-Güstow of Denmark by Gaspar Antoine de Bois-Clair, signed 1692.

    As you can see in the photo, this type of&nbsp;3D lenticular picture uses a corrugated structure to achieve the effect. Look at it from the left, you see the king; from the right, the queen; and if you look at it straight ahead, you get a mish-mash of both.

    Starting in the 1950s, companies like Vari-Vue were able to mass-produce lenticular images through lenticular printing — a novelty you’re probably familiar with from Cracker Jack boxes and baseball cards:

    These flickering images are the result of the same principle but a different process: the images are behind a small, ribbed plastic lens that shifts what’s in focus.

    Lenticulars as fine art

    Artists such as Roy Lichtenstein and especially Yaacov Agam have used lenticular design in their artwork.

    Photographer Sally Canzoneri began creating lenticular prints for a specific exhibit proposal: it was to be displayed in NoMa, a DC neighborhood that was undergoing a lot of change. While considering how best to show that change, Canzoneri happened to see this tutorial on creating lenticular images.

    It was a match.

    “I’ve found that people get drawn into them in a way they don’t get drawn into my flat pictures,” Canzoneri said. The way viewers engage with the content “comes — at least in part — from the fact that the viewing experience is broken up and blended in an unusual way.”

    It can also lead to happy accidents. In the print seen in the video at the top of this post, women’s marches from 1913 and 2017 intersect. Because of the way the images overlap, when viewing the black-and-white image, you can see a slight pink glow above the 1913 marchers’ heads.

    How it works

    Canzoneri’s prints use the old-fashioned accordion style, not the plastic lens. It’s a more hands-on endeavor, and one that took some experimenting to refine.

    It starts, of course, with two images. Using Photoshop, Canzoneri stitches together strips from each image, for a final product that looks like this when printed:Then, using a carpenter’s square, she carefully folds it into the accordion shape. After a few tries, Canzoneri found the right type of paper to use and the correct fold depth (about an inch).

    Double Takes

    Which brings us to “Double Takes” — Canzoneri’s exhibit of lenticular photographs on view now at The Art League. You can catch these images through February 4, 2018.

    Bring your walking shoes — the better to interact with the artwork. And, Canzoneri says, she hopes the photos encourage viewers to “go outside and look around with fresh eyes.”

    Have you ever walked past an exhibit graphic that seemed to move? Or maybe the image suddenly shifted? Your eyes weren’t playing tricks on you … the graphic was playing a trick on your eyes.

    These types of graphics are known as lenticular prints.

    What Are Lenticular Prints?

    Today’s lenticulars aren’t the moving image stickers you used to get at the doctor’s office as a kid (or adult—no judgment here). You know the ones: if you swiveled it a bit it looked like She-Ra was raising her sword, or a transformer was … transforming. Well now that same concept makes things that do this:One of the advantages of lenticulars is that visitors can get a nice pop of 3D or animation without needing any additional equipment. As cool as everyone looks wearing those 3D glasses, it’s a bit of waste to supply those for one panel. Lenticular prints simulate motion and/or dimension using specially fabricated two-dimensional prints.

    HOW DO THE 2D PRINTS MAKE IT LOOK 3D?

    It’s called stereoscopy. It’s a visual effect created by providing slightly offset views to both of your eyes at the same time. When your brain mushes (technical term) the two visuals together, you see the combined image with additional depth and volume. In other words, your brain takes Image 1 and Image 2 and turns into a much more awesome optical illusion. To do that, the designer has to interlace the images.

    One of the advantages of lenticulars is that visitors can get a nice pop of 3D or animation without needing any additional equipment. As cool as everyone looks wearing those 3D glasses, it’s a bit of waste to supply those for one panel. Lenticular prints simulate motion and/or dimension using specially fabricated two-dimensional prints.

    HOW DO THE 2D PRINTS MAKE IT LOOK 3D?

    It’s called stereoscopy. It’s a visual effect created by providing slightly offset views to both of your eyes at the same time. When your brain mushes (technical term) the two visuals together, you see the combined image with additional depth and volume. In other words, your brain takes Image 1 and Image 2 and turns into a much more awesome optical illusion. To do that, the designer has to interlace the images.

    Other than they’re really fun? Lenticular prints add impact to displays of static photographs and other images. They can also create a depth of content. By layering images on top of each other, a lenticular can show a before and after, or a variety of images on a theme in a way that shows shifts. Recently, Smithsonian Libraries worked with SIE to create lenticular prints for their exhibition Magnificent Obsessions: Why We Collect. Visitors could see the image of a prized possession, and then it would shift, showing the collector. Visitors can see a visual connection between the two images, and figure out that the stories behind those two images are intertwined.