Average access time in two level cache system


In a two-level cache system, the level one cache has a hit time of 1 ns (inside the CPU), hit rate of 90%, and a miss penalty of 20 ns. The level two cache has a hit rate of 95% and a miss penalty of 220 ns. What is the average memory access time?

What is a two-level cache system and how to calculate the time required? Since the hit time of level two cache is missing…