Can you (continue to) concentrate on a spell that never had any of its effects take hold?

I have previously asked the following question:

  • Is there any reason to concentrate on the Thunderous Smite spell after using its effects?

And my current question is inspired by that and the following recent question:

  • If I want to affect a creature with a concentration spell and it succeeds its save, do I notice my concentration failing?

I realize that in my previous question I just assumed that you could continue to concentrate on the thunderous smite spell after using its effects, but nobody contested this assumption in the answers, so now I’m asking about a similar, but somewhat different case.

I now ask whether you can (continue to) concentrate on a spell where all of its immediate effects never actually occur. An example of such a spell is bane which has a duration of Concentration 1 Minute and states:

Up to three creatures of your choice that you can see within range must make Charisma saving throws. Whenever a target that fails this saving throw makes an attack roll or a saving throw before the spell ends, the target must roll a d4 and subtract the number rolled from the attack roll or saving throw […]

But what happens if none of the targets fail their saving throw? Can you continue to concentrate on the spell even in this case?