How does Google rank different queries?

I’m looking for help from a backend expert or someone who can teach me more about the process search engines use to code, value, or weigh different search queries around the same topic. I also have a few specific questions about how interlinking between different sites work. I want to know if there are resources to learn more about how search engines are generally coded and developed.

I have reviewed Google’s official guidelines but am looking for something beyond Googlebots, crawlers, etc. I’m aware of the different factors that affect a site’s rankings, but I’m looking for something more technical about the algorithm itself.

Thanks for taking the time to read this; I appreciate any answers I receive.