How can we prove rigorously the proposition “Suppose the if in case 1 is true, the equation 4.23 is true”? For given constant b and j, the implication in green makes sense. If the upper bound of j was fixed, the equation 4.23 follows directly. However, when n increases, the upper bound of j also increases, though is slower. It is where I find difficult to prove there always exists a value m > 0 such that for all n >= m, equation 4.23 is true.