Is there any way to directly get data from a sensor device in C++?

I am currently working on ADCS of a cubesat. The microprocessor we are using runs C++.

In order to compute and get the required results we need the sensor data.Is there anything we can do to collect sensor data directly using C++ like we can do in Arduino IDE using the digitalRead(pin_no) function?

Algorithm is as follows::

                   Get Data  -->  Process  --> Kalman Filter -->  Get output                     ^                                                  |                        |_____________________compare______________________|                                              |                                              v                                     Predict True Value.                                              |                                              v                          Use the values for Attitude determination. 

This problem arises because we cannot use a microprocessor considering our payload and heavy calculations.

Please help me out.