Methods to Prove Data Authenticity from Potentially Compromised Sources?

I’ve been thinking about this problem for some time and I wanted to ask if there are any known methods, or research papers, about how to prove "authenticity" or correctness of data originating from a potentially compromised source (remote server, process, etc). Specifically what I’ve been imagining is say you have service A and service B, service B sources data from A but is worried that A has been compromised such that even if data is signed by A, B can’t trust that it was generated by code written by A‘s developers. Is it possible for B to prove to itself that data from A is authentic, that it was indeed generated by the expected code and not injected or generated by an attacker who has compromised A?

One solution I’ve been thinking about is using a sort of distributed ledger or blockchain so that multiple nodes compute the same data, and in doing so raises the bar such that an attacker would have to compromise N% of the services producing the needed data, this provides naturally replication and I can use an appropriate consensus protocol, but ofc introduces some overhead, efficiency concerns, and I would need to think hard about side-effects being performed more than once.

If there is only one node possible of generating data, such as a sensor node, and it is compromised, I’d imagine all hope is lost, but I also wouldn’t be surprised if there is some clever crypto scheme that attempts to solve this problem as well.

I hope it’s clear as to what the question is, thank you.