GATE CSE 2009, Which of the following is FALSE?

This is a question from GATE CSE 2009.

Which of the following is FALSE?

A] There is a unique minimal DFA for every regular language.

B] Every NFA can be converted to an equivalent PDA.

C] Complement of every context-free language is recursive.

D] Every non-deterministic PDA can be converted to an equivalent deterministic PDA.

The answer provided to me (without any explanation) is B, which I think is wrong.

Here is my approach.

A] Every RL has an equivalent DFA and there is one unique minimal DFA for a given RL. [so True]

B] Since RL are proper sub-set of CFL and every RL has equivalent FA and every CFL has equivalent PDA, every FA can be converted to PDA but not vice versa. [so True]

C] Given a CFL we can create an equivalent Total TM [RECURSIVE], RECURSIVE languages are closed under complement. [so True]

D] This is only remaining option and by method of elimination answer.

Is my answer correct?

[ Movies ] Open Question : What is your favourite movie that’s from the year 2009?

Mine favorite one is Avatar HM: The Princess and the Frog, Inglorious Basterds, Star Trek, Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, The Hangover, Sherlock Holmes, Precious, Zombieland, The Blind Side, Where The Wild Things Are, Up In The Air, Up, X-Men Origins: Wolverine, Fantastic Mr. Fox, Watchmen, Fast & Furious 4, Notorious, Angels & Demons, Funny People, Law Abiding Citizens, The Twilight Saga: New Moon, Knowing, Cloudy with a Chance of Meatballs, Invictus, The Final Destination, Orphan, It’s Complicated, Terminator: Salvation, Ice Age: Dawn of the Dinosaurs, Public Enemies, Couples Reteat, Julie & Julia, Confessions of a Shopaholic, 2012, The Hurt Locker, Adventureland, 17 Again, The Ugly Truth, The Soloist, Year One, He’s Just Not That Into You, Night at the Museum: Battle of the Smithsonian, Paranormal Activity, Mall Cop, I Love You Phillip Morris, Crazy Heart, Ponyo, An Education, (500) Days of Summer, Hannah Montana: The Movie, A Christmas Carol, The Proposal, Monsters & Aliens, Race to Witch Mountain, A Single Man, The Taking of Pelham 123, The Informant!, Moon, District 9, G.I. Joe: Rise of Cobra, Friday The 13th, Saw VI, Madea Goes to Jail, 12 Rounds, Next Day Air, I Can Do Bad All By Myself, and Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen

2009 Mac Pro with 2018 LG 5K Display?

I have a 2009 Mac Pro (flashed to 5,1) with a Sapphire Radeon Pulse RX 580 8GB GPU I acquired to support Mojave. The configuration has been happily stable since late 2018 and performed as expected with my venerable 30” Apple Cinema Display.

However, after a decade of use, the display was showing signs of pixel fatigue, so today I unpacked an LG 34BK95U-W 34″ 5K monitor and connected it to the RX 580 via DisplayPort.

System Profile

  • While both the GPU and monitor allegedly support 5120 x 2160 through DisplayPort 1.4, I’m unable to get above 3440 x 1440.
  • Strangely, I have to set the display to DisplayPort 1.1 to get 3440 x 1440.
  • With the monitor set to DisplayPort 1.4, the best I can do is 2560 x 1080.

So far, I’ve unplugged, plugged, and reseated everything, reset the SMU, and zapped the NVRAM. No joy. Attempts to get support out of Radeon and LG have (predictably) failed, and the problem is so specific I’ve not been able to find anyone in similar straits. Research into DisplayPort, while interesting, hasn’t proved enlightening.

I’d really like to understand how I’ve gone wrong. “It all looks good on paper.” I can pack the thing up and return it, but I’ll still have to address the issue of needing a new display and wanting (pardon me) a big one.

Stuck during clean install on a new SSD on a late 2009 iMac

I hope you might be able to help me out since I am completely stuck in my attempt to perform a clean install of High Sierra on a late 2009 iMac (model number A1311 – does not have Internet recovery) in which I have just inserted a brand new SSD right out of the box using the thermal HDD sensor from OWC. The old HDD got corrupted (or at least, that’s what I think happened), so I swapped it with a 500 GB SSD.

For obvious reasons, I did not clone the old drive. Instead I have prepared a 16 GB USB 2.0 with what should be a bootable version of High Sierra 10.13.6. I made this on a Windows 7 PC using TransMac and a High Sierra .dmg file. I haven’t been able to test if this has worked as intended as I do not have another Mac around.

Anyway, when I switch on the iMac, I hear the familiar chime (so far so good – pre-testing passed) and then I get the expected blinking folder with a question mark on it. Now, I thought that I would be able to boot from the USB by holding the option key on startup to get to the Startup Manager, but the only thing that happens is that I get a mouse pointer (arrow), then nothing. I haven’t had any success on any other startup key combinations – can’t activate verbose mode, either. I don’t know if verbose mode depends on a bootable drive, but with the old drive – after it failed – I could still get into verbose mode and was able to see part of the startup process until it got stuck.

I have also tried installing from DVD by holding down C on startup, but it spits out the DVD after what appears to be a few attempts to read it (it does not have any scratches). I have tried the original install DVD (Snow Leopard) and a home-burned version of Yosemity. No success. The keyboard I am using is an original USB-wired Mac keyboard and I have tested on another computer that the keys are working. Any ideas? I’d be very helpful if someone with expertise in the quirks of late 2009 iMacs could suggest some other things to try. Thanks.

EDIT: I forgot to mention that I have also tried resetting the NVRAM using the keys: Option-Command-P-R, but it didn’t make any difference either.

Tradeoffs of disabling SIP (System Integrity Protection) in order to install Sierra on Mac Pro (Early 2009)

Lets say someone wants to upgrade a Mac Pro (Early 2009) to macOS Sierra in order to get core security updates and newer versions of modern software.

Unfortunately this Mac Pro model is not officially supported for macOS Sierra. However, there is a patch tool in existence which will update the firmware on the machine that would allow the installation of Sierra.

The problem is that it requires SIP to be permanently disabled.

Setting aside all the [multitudes of] other related security concerns (i.e. “uh, patch tool?”)…

Would the security threat of disabling SIP outweigh the added security benefit of OS patches from Apple and new software from 3rd party vendors?

2009 Mac Pro Processor Change – how to resolve errors?

I have a Mac Pro “Eight Core” 2.26 (2009/Nehalem) that I was running with dual X5690 (3.46GHz/6-core/12MB/130W) processors for the last couple years (yes, I’ve got the 2010 firmware hack on it). Been running fantastic, but I needed to do swap some hardware around and so ended up needing to take these processors out and put some older processors (that were from another actual 2010 Mac Pro; 2.66 GHz 6 Core Xeon X5650 x2).

After the transplant was completed I fired it up and immediately got a light on the right side of CPUA:


I held the power button in and immediately turned it off. This light then lit (“OVTMP CPUA”):

ovtmp cpua

I figured something must be up with the heatsink as it seemed as though the screws for the 2009 heatsinks ratcheted down tightly and immediately instead of having some give that would indicate that it was in contact with the CPU (lidded CPU btw). Made me figure that perhaps the heatsink was not pressing down the CPUA processor enough. I also recalled that the previous processor that was in here may have been SLIGHTLY taller.

I then took the heatsink back off and put about .5 to .75 mm of copper cut to size for the Xeon lid and used thermal paste again to make up for this possible spacing issue. I repeated this for CPUB. The heatsink seemed to ratchet down better this time as I could feel some pressure being applied and the torque didn’t stop immediately as before and thus i could torque it down a bit.

After doing this, I unfortunately found that the same error lights were emitted – no change.

I also went ahead got some additional feedback from the DIAG LED button:

diag led results

I’m not really sure what to do at this point. Should I add thicker copper to make the heatsinks apply greater pressure to these Xeon processors?

I believe Intel has pretty good heat protection for these processors, so I don’t believe the processor would be “burned out” at this point, right?

Further, would resetting the motherboard by removing the battery and / or pressing the reset button beside the battery (above the 1st PCIe slot / behind the GPU) help at all?

Any other ideas aside from buying a new processor?

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How do I copy files from old iMac (2009) to usb using single user mode if I can’t remember the exact names of the files?

My old iMac (2009) won’t boot and can’t be repaired in single user mode. I want to back up a few files before rebooting, but can’t remember the exact name of the files. Is there a command that copies all files, or is there a way of seeing what is on the harddrive?

How to solve a catch 22 situation trying to upgrade an old 2009 mac mini to El Capitan with an AppleID created in 2019?

I had the chance to have in my hands an old mac mini from 2009. I turned it on, it works perfectly. Currently it runs Mac OS X 10.6.8.

Now, I would like to try to upgrade it to a slightly newer version, like El Capitan.

So, I created a brand new AppleID on with all my data, including a valid credit card. I checked and Apple did registered and then deleted a transaction with a small amount, to check the credit card. I also confirmed my email using the code Apple sent me during the AppleID registration phase.

After that I opened the “App Store” app on this old Mac, I navigated to the page where I can download El Capitan from, and a pop up asks me to input my AppleID credentials.

I’ve done it and a pop up tells me that my AppleID have not yet been used in the app store and that I have to verify it.

I click on “verify” and a second pop up tells me I have to update the software and the OS to be able to verify my AppleID.

So I’m now stuck in this catch 22 situation.

Can someone explain me if there’s a way to solve it?


Two of the original video cards in 2009 Mac Pro?

I have a 2009 Mac Pro and am curious about whether or not I can put two of the stock video cards in it. My friend has an identical Mac Pro, but has a better video card. I could put his old stock one in mine if I wanted. I’m wondering if I can combine my card and his to get roughly twice the video performance? Or would that not work, since that little bridging thing isn’t there?