derivative with respect to dirac function: understanding equation (15) in paper “Deterministic Policy Gradient Algorithms 2014”


equation (14) said $ J_{\beta}(\mu_{\theta}) = \int_s \rho^{\beta}(s)Q^{\mu}(s, \mu_{\theta}(s))ds$

I do not quite understand the first line of equation (15) , where it reads $ \nabla_ {\theta}J_{\beta}(\mu_0) \approx \int_s \rho^{\beta}(s) \nabla_{\theta}\mu_{\theta}(a|s)Q^{\mu}(s,a)ds\ = E_{s \sim \rho^{\beta} }[\nabla_{\theta}\mu_{\theta}(s)\nabla_{a}Q(s,a)|a=\mu_{\theta}(s)] $

  1. what does $ \mu_{\theta}(a|s)$ mean here? note that this is deterministic policy, so there is no probability distribution of actions, and in the expression, the $ a$ come out of nowhere. it is not integrated out.

  2. why the first line exactly equals the second line?

  3. does the first line in equation (15) actually should be $ \nabla_{\theta}[\int_a \delta(a-\mu_{\theta}(s))Q^{\mu}(s,a)da]$ , is so , how do i calculate the expression with dirac function $ \delta(a-\mu_{\theta}(s))$ here?

Mac mini (2014) wont output video signal over HDMI only via thunderbolt

Ive got a 2014 Mac mini running OSX 10.11.6 connected to 2 screens. One via the native HDMI and one via a Thunderbolt to HDMI convertor.

It has been running fine for about 2 years. I turned it off around the 19/12/18 and turn it on 7/1/19.

The screen powered via the Thunderbolt to HDMI convertor works fine, and if i swap the screens round i can verify this. But for some reason the HDMI only screen dosnt work. Ive done some multi variable testing to test the various components and can only conclude the HDMI output on the mac mini isnt working.

Ive tried restarting the machine several times and ive tried relaunching finder several times. But the second display connected to the HDMI port just wont work, it just shows up a black screen with a generic error “check signal”. If i go the system preferences > display the second display isnt listed.

Any ideas ?

SharePoint 2013 SQL Reporting Services 2014 500 error

We have a 3 server farm: 2 WFE, 1 App. SharePoint Enterprise license

The App server has the SQL 2014 reporting services integrated SharePoint with the add in installed. The WFEs all have the Add in installed. I’ve run the:

Install-SPRSService Install-SPRSServiceProxy 

commands on both WFEs and APP server. (The service is not running on the WFEs, Should it be?)

I installed the Service Application. When I go to manage the service application, I get the error:

Something went wrong, the server returned (500) internal server error 

The following is the ULS Log of the event:

WcfSendRequest: RemoteAddress: ‘http://ApplicationServer:32843/91362f8835d04903ac3a703a64a8ae54/ReportingWebService.svc’ Channel: ‘Microsoft.ReportingServices.ServiceContract.IReportServiceManagement’ Action: ‘’ MessageId: ‘urn:uuid:a1e5f804-4819-4dc5-ad17-1595d14a2212’ Application error when access /_admin/ReportServer/ReportingServicesSystemSettings.aspx, Error=The remote server returned an error: (500) Internal Server Error. at System.Net.HttpWebRequest.GetResponse() at System.ServiceModel.Channels.HttpChannelFactory1.HttpRequestChannel.HttpChannelRequest.WaitForReply(TimeSpan timeout) System.Net.WebException: The remote server returned an error: (500) Internal Server Error. at System.Net.HttpWebRequest.GetResponse() at System.ServiceModel.Channels.HttpChannelFactory1.HttpRequestChannel.HttpChannelRequest.WaitForReply(TimeSpan timeout) Getting Error Message for Exception System.Web.HttpUnhandledException (0x80004005): Exception of type ‘System.Web.HttpUnhandledException’ was thrown. —> System.ServiceModel.ProtocolException: The content type text/html; charset=utf-8 of the response message does not match the content type of the binding (application/soap+msbin1). If using a custom encoder, be sure that the IsContentTypeSupported method is implemented properly. The first 1024 bytes of the response were: ‘ IIS 8.5 Detailed Error – 500.19 – Internal Server Error System.Net.WebException: The remote server returned an error: (500) Internal Server Error. at System.Net.HttpWebRequest.GetResponse() at System.ServiceModel.Channels.HttpChannelFactory1.HttpRequestChannel.HttpChannelRequest.WaitForReply(TimeSpan timeout) --- End of inner exception stack trace --- Server stack trace: at System.ServiceModel.Channels.HttpChannelUtilities.ValidateRequestReplyResponse(HttpWebRequest request, HttpWebResponse response, HttpChannelFactory1 factory, WebException responseException, ChannelBinding channelBinding) at System.ServiceModel.Channels.HttpChannelFactory1.HttpRequestChannel.HttpChannelRequest.WaitForReply(TimeSpan timeout) at System.ServiceModel.Channels.RequestChannel.Request(Message message, TimeSpan timeout) at System.ServiceModel.Channels.SecurityChannelFactory1.SecurityRequestChannel.Request(Message message TimeSpan timeout) at System.ServiceModel.Channels.ServiceChannel.Call(String action, Boolean oneway, ProxyOperationRuntime operation, Object[] ins, Object[] outs, TimeSpan timeout) at System.ServiceModel.Channels.ServiceChannelProxy.InvokeService(IMethodCallMessage methodCall, ProxyOperationRuntime operation) at System.ServiceModel.Channels.ServiceChannelProxy.Invoke(IMessage message) Exception rethrown at [0]: at System.Runtime.Remoting.Proxies.RealProxy.HandleReturnMessage(IMessage reqMsg, IMessage retMsg) at System.Runtime.Remoting.Proxies.RealProxy.PrivateInvoke(MessageData& msgData, Int32 type) at Microsoft.ReportingServices.ServiceContract.IReportServiceManagement.GetSystemProperties(ICollection1 properties) at Microsoft.ReportingServices.SharePointSharedService.ProxyHelper.<>c__DisplayClass9.<GetSystemProperties>b__8(IReportServiceManagement mchannel) at Microsoft.ReportingServices.SharePoint.SharedService.ProxyHelper.DoManagementChannelCall(Action1 caller) at Microsoft.ReportingServices.SharePoint.SharedService.UI.ReportingServicesSystemSettings.get_SystemProperties() at Microsoft.ReportingServices.SharePoint.SharedService.UI.ReportingServicesSystemSettings.LoadSettings() at Microsoft.ReportingServices.SharePoint.SharedService.UI.ReportingServicesSystemSettings.OnInit(EventArgs e) at System.Web.UI.Control.InitRecursive(Control namingContainer) at System.Web.UI.Page.ProcessRequestMain(Boolean includeStagesBeforeAsyncPoint, Boolean includeStagesAfterAsyncPoint)
at System.Web.UI.Page.HandleError(Exception e) at System.Web.UI.Page.ProcessRequestMain(Boolean includeStagesBeforeAsyncPoint, Boolean includeStagesAfterAsyncPoint)
at System.Web.UI.Page.ProcessRequest(Boolean includeStagesBeforeAsyncPoint, Boolean includeStagesAfterAsyncPoint)
at System.Web.UI.Page.ProcessRequest() at System.Web.UI.Page.ProcessRequest(HttpContext context) at System.Web.HttpApplication.CallHandlerExecutionStep.System.Web.HttpApplication.IExecutionStep.Execute() at System.Web.HttpApplication.ExecuteStep(IExecutionStep step, Boolean& completedSynchronously)

White Screen edges on Macbook Pro 2014

I have a MacBook Pro 15 inch, 2014 model, with 2 GPUs: Intel and NVIDIA 750M.

Last Monday I turned it on and I noticed that the screen is white as you can see in the picture.

The problem is that when I keep the Mac turned on for some time (>2 hours) the screen goes back to normal without white edges.

When I turn it off and keep it turned off for a while, then turn it on again it becomes white again and I must wait >2 hours so I can see my screen without this whiting effect.

enter image description here

Unable to partition mid 2014 MacBook Pro SSD on Sierra 10.13.6

Just trying to partition my 500GB SSD so I can dual-boot linux and my MBP doesn’t want to let me do it. I’ve watched countless videos and no one seems to be having my problem. I attempt to the partition in Disk Util,enter image description here first select my Apple SSD and hit partition. When I hit the “+” to add a partition it doesn’t auto divide my SSD in half, it only lets me create a 1.6GB partition. I have over 240 free GB’s of storage. It won’t allow me to enter it manually, and nothing I have tried has resolved this regardless of format etc. and for some reason no one has shared how to partition from the command line that I have found. There’s articles showing how to do everything except for partition in the command line and I’m too timid to attempt it without being confident about it working.

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SQL Server 2014 SP2, backup and restore with powershell

I have a task where i have to take the backup with encryption and restore it to destination using the powershell.

I used the invoke-sql command and use the tsql in it but this command is not reliable for us rather we want to use the SQL powershell i.e backup-sqldatabase & restore sqldatabase.

my questions are what are the process to perform it (please i dont want to use invoke-sqlcmd)

  • create master using powershell ( i use “create master key encryption by password = ‘Abcd1234!'” in invoke-sqlcommand)
  • Create certificate using powershell
  • backup-certificate
  • create backup using encryption