Must you be able to see your opponents to be flanked?

Neither the entry on flanking from the SRD nor the Player’s Handbook entry (p 153) nor the Rules Compendium (pp 56-57) mention anything about being able to see the flanker or being aware of the threat. However, this Rules of the Game Article, All About Sneak Attacks (part three) mentions

You get a flanking bonus from any ally your foe can see (and who is in the correct position to flank). If your foe can’t see you, you don’t provide a flanking bonus to any ally.

Is there a source for this or is this just an interpretation? (I am aware of the controversy around the RotG articles.)

I was reading Detecting a Held Charge Touch Attack which brought up the topic about how a spell caster threatens when holding the charge. It appears from most of the answers there’s some question as to whether it can be detected at all, much less by other means. This then brings up the a related question, If your opponent can’t perceive your threat, can you still provide flanking bonuses to allies in a flanking position against that opponent?

If flanking bonuses come from dividing the target’s attention, it seems necessary for the target to be aware, but is this ever specifically mentioned in the rules?

It may be simpler to ignore this requirement mentioned in the article, but then it does create the odd situation that within the secondary reality of the game, something an opponent is not aware of has a significant impact on their defense.

I am interested in what the rules say, any indication of rules-as-intended, and recommendations on what works best at the game table.

Basic buffer overflow able to over EIP but doesn’t correctly overwrite when using memory address

I wrote a basic vulnerable app in C.

#include <string.h> 

void vuln(char *arg) { char buffer[10]; strcpy(buffer, arg); }

int main( int argc, char** argv ) { vuln(argv[1]); return 0; }

I determined that if I input 26 characters, characters 23-26 will overwrite EIP. I can successfully represent this in gdb. When try to replace some arbitrary character with my desired address (the address to system() in libc 0xb7e41b40 on my machine) eip becomes gibberish. The input ends up being “a * 22 \x40\x1b\xe4\xb7” why is that? I pasted the gdb output below as well. Thank you.

(gdb) run aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaabbbb\x40\x1b\xe4\xb7 

The program being debugged has been started already. Start it from the beginning? (y or n) y Starting program: /home/bob/Documents/C/Disassembler_Fun/overflow aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaabbbb\x40\x1b\xe4\xb7

Program received signal SIGSEGV, Segmentation fault. 0x78303478 in ?? () (gdb) i r eax 0xbffff276 -1073745290 ecx 0xbffff520 -1073744608 edx 0xbffff28a -1073745270 ebx 0x61616161 1633771873 esp 0xbffff290 0xbffff290 ebp 0x62626262 0x62626262 esi 0x2 2 edi 0xb7fbb000 -1208242176

why not the address? eip 0x78303478 0x78303478 didn’t work?

eflags 0x10282 [ SF IF RF ] cs 0x73 115 ss 0x7b 123 ds 0x7b 123 es 0x7b 123 fs 0x0 0 gs 0x33 51 (gdb) run aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaabbbbcccc The program being debugged has been started already. Start it from the beginning? (y or n) y Starting program: /home/bob/Documents/C/Disassembler_Fun/overflow aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaabbbbcccc

Program received signal SIGSEGV, Segmentation fault. 0x63636363 in ?? () (gdb) i r eax 0xbffff286 -1073745274 ecx 0xbffff520 -1073744608 edx 0xbffff292 -1073745262 ebx 0x61616161 1633771873 esp 0xbffff2a0 0xbffff2a0 ebp 0x62626262 0x62626262 esi 0x2 2 edi 0xb7fbb000 -1208242176

over written with cccc eip 0x63636363 0x63636363 worked here

eflags 0x10282 [ SF IF RF ] cs 0x73 115 ss 0x7b 123 ds 0x7b 123 es 0x7b 123 fs 0x0 0 gs 0x33 51 (gdb)

Could not able to plot the function

I have a function P which is dependent on x, I tried plotting the function but I am getting nothing in the plot. I am also interested in finding the roots of the equation.
P = 2.686350117820842*10^2406 – 3.509147003769840*10^2403 x^2 + 2.232334766012457*10^2400 x^4 – 9.23321306009387*10^2396 x^6 + 2.797063590071589*10^2393 x^8 – 6.628019419459146*10^2389 x^10 + 1.281285155718557*10^2386 x^12 – 2.080706919967667*10^2382 x^14 + 2.900600749513771*10^2378 x^16 – 3.529683274215479*10^2374 x^18 + 3.799572525545543*10^2370 x^20 – 3.657654959609442*10^2366 x^22 + 3.177358914380688*10^2362 x^24 – 2.509839111095646*10^2358 x^26 + 1.814625240727776*10^2354 x^28 – 1.207688796217551*10^2350 x^30 + 7.435446299837606*10^2345 x^32 – 4.253490093370832*10^2341 x^34 + 2.269657765882891*10^2337 x^36 – 1.133608420161897*10^2333 x^38 + 5.316334073138192*10^2328 x^40 – 2.347664003997277*10^2324 x^42 + 9.78698498875831*10^2319 x^44 – 3.860713086508757*10^2315 x^46 + 1.444181525125296*10^2311 x^48 – 5.132934302120220*10^2306 x^50 + 1.736544827340320*10^2302 x^52 – 5.601566614600686*10^2297 x^54 + 1.725478614191356*10^2293 x^56 – 5.082900519602480*10^2288 x^58 + 1.433830406931773*10^2284 x^60 – 3.878031085948603*10^2279 x^62 + 1.006838752933342*10^2275 x^64 – 2.511998423431655*10^2270 x^66 + 6.028870570737217*10^2265 x^68 – 1.393250733667592*10^2261 x^70 + 3.103089714603463*10^2256 x^72 – 6.666587245054238*10^2251 x^74 + 1.382638575445950*10^2247 x^76 – 2.770397956252858*10^2242 x^78 + 5.366842280628789*10^2237 x^80 – 1.005858930607984*10^2233 x^82 + 1.825072143393833*10^2228 x^84 – 3.207869510983551*10^2223 x^86 + 5.465159420757082*10^2218 x^88 – 9.02987914428045*10^2213 x^90 + 1.447724685668347*10^2209 x^92 – 2.253389040532460*10^2204 x^94 + 3.406776673880169*10^2199 x^96 – 5.005069504865876*10^2194 x^98 + 7.148720260786071*10^2189 x^100 – 9.93076381228350*10^2184 x^102 + 1.342300350538044*10^2180 x^104 – 1.766031989976773*10^2175 x^106 + 2.262514329562340*10^2170 x^108 – 2.823472028631675*10^2165 x^110 + 3.433398530687380*10^2160 x^112 – 4.069647349352201*10^2155 x^114 + 4.703474536791501*10^2150 x^116 – 5.302034601457534*10^2145 x^118 + 5.831164114332556*10^2140 x^120 – 6.258630293213825*10^2135 x^122 + 6.557411618941536*10^2130 x^124 – 6.708541700709386*10^2125 x^126 + 6.703098152426357*10^2120 x^128 – 6.543047641701977*10^2115 x^130 + 6.240840903503749*10^2110 x^132 – 5.817849945123738*10^2105 x^134 + 5.301914007185092*10^2100 x^136 – 4.724378349510931*10^2095 x^138 + 4.117052274652728*10^2090 x^140 – 3.509479115559841*10^2085 x^142 + 2.926816185721846*10^2080 x^144 – 2.388492465214735*10^2075 x^146 + 1.907675036517837*10^2070 x^148 – 1.491457505406822*10^2065 x^150 + 1.141602028087492*10^2060 x^152 – 8.556279254594532*10^2054 x^154 + 6.280413776807839*10^2049 x^156 – 4.515326540439904*10^2044 x^158 + 3.180167907726034*10^2039 x^160 – 2.194478115710771*10^2034 x^162 + 1.483853865742252*10^2029 x^164 – 9.83300223305664*10^2023 x^166 + 6.386617152824788*10^2018 x^168 – 4.066288654597450*10^2013 x^170 + 2.538161330896050*10^2008 x^172 – 1.553400356631517*10^2003 x^174 + 9.32263314135091*10^1997 x^176 – 5.486951378176007*10^1992 x^178 + 3.167420751645592*10^1987 x^180 – 1.793518595659501*10^1982 x^182 + 9.96261698489905*10^1976 x^184 – 5.429364360014730*10^1971 x^186 + 2.903165552666326*10^1966 x^188 – 1.523280393092388*10^1961 x^190 + 7.843499419670845*10^1955 x^192 – 3.963668964374835*10^1950 x^194 + 1.965969276987846*10^1945 x^196 – 9.57152492960029*10^1939 x^198 + 4.574490289152389*10^1934 x^200 – 2.146310190307600*10^1929 x^202 + 9.88690722332728*10^1923 x^204 – 4.471730279011893*10^1918 x^206 + 1.985938984779357*10^1913 x^208 – 8.660807588686577*10^1907 x^210 + 3.709190693138281*10^1902 x^212 – 1.560103455468367*10^1897 x^214 + 6.444739988049591*10^1891 x^216 – 2.614921174621156*10^1886 x^218 + 1.042162872740786*10^1881 x^220 – 4.079981202301375*10^1875 x^222 + 1.569087899814386*10^1870 x^224 – 5.928203849050795*10^1864 x^226 + 2.200417896059673*10^1859 x^228 – 8.024391148585218*10^1853 x^230 + 2.875159025345020*10^1848 x^232 – 1.012212697232504*10^1843 x^234 + 3.501534455222515*10^1837 x^236 – 1.190248525711444*10^1832 x^238 + 3.975802300137773*10^1826 x^240 – 1.305071797366944*10^1821 x^242 + 4.209984664855359*10^1815 x^244 – 1.334677953421113*10^1810 x^246 + 4.158484665287774*10^1804 x^248 – 1.273410903504800*10^1799 x^250 + 3.832555857332483*10^1793 x^252 – 1.133720397800658*10^1788 x^254 + 3.296336124395826*10^1782 x^256 – 9.42052424742060*10^1776 x^258 + 2.646343249978066*10^1771 x^260 – 7.307246483464030*10^1765 x^262 + 1.983381588790684*10^1760 x^264 – 5.291900946277332*10^1754 x^266 + 1.387961871579574*10^1749 x^268 – 3.578580485948212*10^1743 x^270 + 9.07022441316217*10^1737 x^272 – 2.259984088022122*10^1732 x^274 + 5.535776061884918*10^1726 x^276 – 1.333038444619680*10^1721 x^278 + 3.155750717810446*10^1715 x^280 – 7.344512424651015*10^1709 x^282 + 1.680457453641542*10^1704 x^284 – 3.780070966485888*10^1698 x^286 + 8.359561279291154*10^1692 x^288 – 1.817527358656161*10^1687 x^290 + 3.885034062551937*10^1681 x^292 – 8.164455093279046*10^1675 x^294 + 1.686863009334956*10^1670 x^296 – 3.426526103596986*10^1664 x^298 + 6.843069177401753*10^1658 x^300 – 1.343603626786899*10^1653 x^302 + 2.593672378394226*10^1647 x^304 – 4.922466977085678*10^1641 x^306 + 9.18489000822497*10^1635 x^308 – 1.684953634573095*10^1630 x^310 + 3.038952248333740*10^1624 x^312 – 5.388656454536683*10^1618 x^314 + 9.39412399337185*10^1612 x^316 – 1.610087299983996*10^1607 x^318 + 2.713049933388496*10^1601 x^320 – 4.494475002293981*10^1595 x^322 + 7.319986511537511*10^1589 x^324 – 1.172057048939555*10^1584 x^326 + 1.844977753834419*10^1578 x^328 – 2.855182746212618*10^1572 x^330 + 4.343834731262068*10^1566 x^332 – 6.496885750019254*10^1560 x^334 + 9.55268382834428*10^1554 x^336 – 1.380795113437095*10^1549 x^338 + 1.962058315283751*10^1543 x^340 – 2.740743088982950*10^1537 x^342 + 3.763510693306638*10^1531 x^344 – 5.080199940292004*10^1525 x^346 + 6.741017374907996*10^1519 x^348 – 8.792674582153970*10^1513 x^350 + 1.127356164004770*10^1508 x^352 – 1.420820821885134*10^1502 x^354 + 1.760146039983033*10^1496 x^356 – 2.143296569804627*10^1490 x^358 + 2.565267907439039*10^1484 x^360 – 3.017814628293543*10^1478 x^362 + 3.489426100729698*10^1472 x^364 – 3.965601509627411*10^1466 x^366 + 4.429447174196560*10^1460 x^368 – 4.862581625296601*10^1454 x^370 + 5.246292521230257*10^1448 x^372 – 5.562850387720804*10^1442 x^374 + 5.796853983427411*10^1436 x^376 – 5.936466649461109*10^1430 x^378 + 5.974406125055940*10^1424 x^380 – 5.908572891940683*10^1418 x^382 + 5.742241709894746*10^1412 x^384 – 5.483792133412483*10^1406 x^386 + 5.146008822434077*10^1400 x^388 – 4.745032987972388*10^1394 x^390 + 4.299084750681276*10^1388 x^392 – 3.827097125901663*10^1382 x^394 + 3.347403481153394*10^1376 x^396 – 2.876602725419878*10^1370 x^398 + 2.428694249104125*10^1364 x^400 – 2.014533828230008*10^1358 x^402 + 1.641619181562812*10^1352 x^404 – 1.314175940961979*10^1346 x^406 + 1.033486214800720*10^1340 x^408 – 7.983852739018635*10^1333 x^410 + 6.058474727899986*10^1327 x^412 – 4.515886933994255*10^1321 x^414 + 3.306264081366439*10^1315 x^416 – 2.377563904131392*10^1309 x^418 + 1.679237839489421*10^1303 x^420 – 1.164829767485104*10^1297 x^422 + 7.935376392911023*10^1290 x^424 – 5.308987593571449*10^1284 x^426 + 3.488020119181430*10^1278 x^428 – 2.250365276668083*10^1272 x^430 + 1.425663994840285*10^1266 x^432 – 8.868588727457016*10^1259 x^434 + 5.416861600574322*10^1253 x^436 – 3.248472892534088*10^1247 x^438 + 1.912630590577480*10^1241 x^440 – 1.105566862790935*10^1235 x^442 + 6.273680133767686*10^1228 x^444 – 3.494815112791049*10^1222 x^446 + 1.911046205638163*10^1216 x^448 – 1.025754985147126*10^1210 x^450 + 5.404076674469516*10^1203 x^452 – 2.794372932035669*10^1197 x^454 + 1.418114933715901*10^1191 x^456 – 7.062874953045376*10^1184 x^458 + 3.452018055249632*10^1178 x^460 – 1.655633070050951*10^1172 x^462 + 7.791700607210830*10^1165 x^464 – 3.597947165977340*10^1159 x^466 + 1.630078374010770*10^1153 x^468 – 7.245523475293265*10^1146 x^470 + 3.159472661882223*10^1140 x^472 – 1.351507717181499*10^1134 x^474 + 5.670960942548448*10^1127 x^476 – 2.334014989068994*10^1121 x^478 + 9.42179591677835*10^1114 x^480 – 3.730100770024781*10^1108 x^482 + 1.448230016133533*10^1102 x^484 – 5.513881785888662*10^1095 x^486 + 2.058508315152457*10^1089 x^488 – 7.535202490236606*10^1082 x^490 + 2.704305337139761*10^1076 x^492 – 9.51493645106292*10^1069 x^494 + 3.281827862724674*10^1063 x^496 – 1.109571526718667*10^1057 x^498 + 3.677001052421732*10^1050 x^500 – 1.194262986031659*10^1044 x^502 + 3.801388459062310*10^1037 x^504 – 1.185736943005922*10^1031 x^506 + 3.624144340194998*10^1024 x^508 – 1.085326295119428*10^1018 x^510 + 3.184336690499094*10^1011 x^512 – 9.15265315360722*10^1004 x^514 + 2.576970104042530*10^998 x^516 – 7.106741460354884*10^991 x^518 + 1.919527070100305*10^985 x^520 – 5.077428255070817*10^978 x^522 + 1.315169795939462*10^972 x^524 – 3.335572468709188*10^965 x^526 + 8.282680296727712*10^958 x^528 – 2.013465565926689*10^952 x^530 + 4.791268546923877*10^945 x^532 – 1.115961983238396*10^939 x^534 + 2.543898714625890*10^932 x^536 – 5.674924283553106*10^925 x^538 + 1.238761877862649*10^919 x^540 – 2.645697031412988*10^912 x^542 + 5.528066528310169*10^905 x^544 – 1.129907715451902*10^899 x^546 + 2.258937772190814*10^892 x^548 – 4.416838093793809*10^885 x^550 + 8.445361906230247*10^878 x^552 – 1.578983472142473*10^872 x^554 + 2.886301523822343*10^865 x^556 – 5.157772274030366*10^858 x^558 + 9.00927447280871*10^851 x^560 – 1.538065326188156*10^845 x^562 + 2.566057844702199*10^838 x^564 – 4.183246440184080*10^831 x^566 + 6.662906363258365*10^824 x^568 – 1.036726908534393*10^818 x^570 + 1.575657490425618*10^811 x^572 – 2.338846202524272*10^804 x^574 + 3.390226688499028*10^797 x^576 – 4.798296448841429*10^790 x^578 + 6.630097417686452*10^783 x^580 – 8.942720476487491*10^776 x^582 + 1.177274957509828*10^770 x^584 – 1.512465267645572*10^763 x^586 + 1.895972649294613*10^756 x^588 – 2.318765940004212*10^749 x^590 + 2.766292480448929*10^742 x^592 – 3.218791725652668*10^735 x^594 + 3.652393804987598*10^728 x^596 – 4.040989068586522*10^721 x^598 + 4.358706025852007*10^714 x^600 – 4.582693468544262*10^707 x^602 + 4.695803111075273*10^700 x^604 – 4.688741559807496*10^693 x^606 + 4.561319881825257*10^686 x^608 – 4.322569644411743*10^679 x^610 + 3.989688936013741*10^672 x^612 – 3.585988266929982*10^665 x^614 + 3.138177945893562*10^658 x^616 – 2.673437612187067*10^651 x^618 + 2.216715896777711*10^644 x^620 – 1.788627818060961*10^637 x^622 + 1.404174500186407*10^630 x^624 – 1.072341751792931*10^623 x^626 + 7.964800475641478*10^615 x^628 – 5.752587779349611*10^608 x^630 + 4.039372861699552*10^601 x^632 – 2.757027740769818*10^594 x^634 + 1.828763089939277*10^587 x^636 – 1.178620216644649*10^580 x^638 + 7.379038749201475*10^572 x^640 – 4.486862605957440*10^565 x^642 + 2.649162740835810*10^558 x^644 – 1.518452940120143*10^551 x^646 + 8.447396286832695*10^543 x^648 – 4.560087893863542*10^536 x^650 + 2.388087569454717*10^529 x^652 – 1.212968867012339*10^522 x^654 + 5.973994622973118*10^514 x^656 – 2.852244673191626*10^507 x^658 + 1.319787541596352*10^500 x^660 – 5.917012482879806*10^492 x^662 + 2.569599033701511*10^485 x^664 – 1.080620010752694*10^478 x^666 + 4.399494748327280*10^470 x^668 – 1.733520668334456*10^463 x^670 + 6.608801006599677*10^455 x^672 – 2.436976545587831*10^448 x^674 + 8.689185240682283*10^440 x^676 – 2.994787739224995*10^433 x^678 + 9.97398312034905*10^425 x^680 – 3.208772811716005*10^418 x^682 + 9.96838679970145*10^410 x^684 – 2.989300706409979*10^403 x^686 + 8.649909540838832*10^395 x^688 – 2.414260480021974*10^388 x^690 + 6.497036542475437*10^380 x^692 – 1.685107150526525*10^373 x^694 + 4.210534545492902*10^365 x^696 – 1.013105481444205*10^358 x^698 + 2.346299337286123*10^350 x^700 – 5.227813821621668*10^342 x^702 + 1.120092727822506*10^335 x^704 – 2.306568812170204*10^327 x^706 + 4.562790569051598*10^319 x^708 – 8.665839615324031*10^311 x^710 + 1.57929*10^304 x^712 – 2.76013*10^296 x^714 + 4.62324*10^288 x^716 – 7.41716*10^280 x^718 + 1.13897*10^273 x^720 – 1.67291*10^265 x^722 + 2.34855*10^257 x^724 – 3.14893*10^249 x^726 + 4.0292*10^241 x^728 – 4.9159*10^233 x^730 + 5.71392*10^225 x^732 – 6.32137*10^217 x^734 + 6.64985*10^209 x^736 – 6.64492*10^201 x^738 + 6.30048*10^193 x^740 – 5.66194*10^185 x^742 + 4.81655*10^177 x^744 – 3.87369*10^169 x^746 + 2.94125*10^161 x^748 – 2.10534*10^153 x^750 + 1.41845*10^145 x^752 – 8.98*10^136 x^754 + 5.33242*10^128 x^756 – 2.96423*10^120 x^758 + 1.53931*10^112 x^760 – 7.45037*10^103 x^762 + 3.35264*10^95 x^764 – 1.39887*10^87 x^766 + 5.39579*10^78 x^768 – 1.91778*10^70 x^770 + 6.25793*10^61 x^772 – 1.86721*10^53 x^774 + 5.07121*10^44 x^776 – 1.24727*10^36 x^778 + 2.76185*10^27 x^780 – 5.46899*10^18 x^782 + 9.60895*10^9 x^784 – 14.8419 x^786 + 1.9931*10^-8 x^788 – 2.29559*10^-17 x^790 + 2.22936*10^-26 x^792 – 1.78565*10^-35 x^794 + 1.14492*10^-44 x^796 – 5.63037*10^-54 x^798 + 1.98626*10^-63 x^800 – 4.45525*10^-73 x^802 + 4.74795*10^-83 x^804; Plot[P, {x, 0, 100},PlotRange->All]

Do HTML5 browsers have to be able to properly process HTML4 tags when the tags appear in HTML5 pages?

According to the post here, the HTML5 specification requires HTML5 browsers to be able to properly process HTML4 tags when they are in HTML5 pages.

Unfortunately, the post doesn’t very well substantiate this claim. Can someone answer this StackExchange question, and if the answer is ‘yes’, can they also please substantiate their claim with reference to specific sections of the HTML5 specification in a precise way?

Am I able to obtain a LHR travel visa at Heathrow airport?

I have a Philippine passport but currently residing in the United States as a greencard holder. I am travelling to Norway with a Shengen visa but I have a 23 hour layover in London Heathrow. And I plan to meet a friend and do a little bit of sightseeing. I don’t have enough time to apply for a Transit visa due to time restraint, is it possible to get one when I arrived at the airport?

Why I am not able to authenticate with Microsoft Graph Explorer through Sharepoint Custom Web Part only in Edge Browser

I have deployed a custom web part on sharepoint online, in which I am authenticate with Microsoft Graph Explorer.

It is authenticated through Sharepoint Custom Web Part successfully in Chrome, IE and Firefox but not authenticated in Edge.

In Edge I’ve getting below error:

enter image description here

description: "Invalid argument" message: "Invalid argument" number: -2147418113 stack: "TypeError: Invalid argument at Anonymous function (https://spoprod-a.akamaihd.net/files/sp-client-prod_2019-05-31.012/sp-pages-assembly_en-us_80b161431b1b8ce356b58dd5ab1df0cc.js:1178:42819) 

This is my method in which I found that at the time of calling microsoft graph explorer API(“https://graph.microsoft.com”), in Chrome, IEand Firefox the API provides the response, but in Edge it goes in catch part and throws error.

private _getListApplications(param): Promise<any> {   return this.context.aadHttpClientFactory.getClient('https://graph.microsoft.com')   .then((client: AadHttpClient) => {       return client.get("https://graph.microsoft.com/beta/applications",AadHttpClient.configurations.v1);       }).then((responseListAllApps: SPHttpClientResponse) => {          return responseListAllApps.json();          }).catch(err => { console.log('errr', err); }); } 

After having Administrator Level Permission why I am not able to Upload/Delete Web Part on Sharepoint Admin

I have sharepoint administrator level permission, but after having this permission I’m not able to upload a new web part and delete web part also.

In below screenshot I have no option for upload, new and delete .

enter image description here

Is there any setting, that i have to configure or other issue? please let me know, Thanks

Can’t able to add Drupal 8 Commerce PayPal Checkout details

I’m trying to add paypal module in drupal 8 commerce functionality. And i downloaded paypal 8.x-1.0-beta4 version then installed and enabled. After that i trying to add paypal checkout payment gateway details by using “admin/commerce/config/payment-gateways/add” link. But i got no response after submitting the form except blank page. What to do now?

Rsyslog not able to read imfile from perforce directory

I am facing an issue in an Ubuntu server where Rsyslog is not able to read any file from the Perforce logs directory.

I tested that the Rsyslog configuration for the imfile is working properly since it is able to read from other directorys including /home.

I also added syslog user to perforce group and vice-versa but it still didn’t work.

One workaround I found but obviously not suitable for production is to do something like:

tail -f /perforce/logs/log.csv >> /home/monitoredlogfile

Any idea what could be going wrong ?

Should I be able to use the Gloom Stalker, Ranger, Dread Ambusher Class feature when attacking before initiative has been rolled to add a d8 damage?

There was a case in a in a session of my Homebrewy D&D 5e game that I played recently where I was playing a Gloom Stalker Ranger lvl 4 and was hidden from an enemy that was unaware of an incoming attack. In the spirit of the ambusher that is the Gloom Stalker my DM allowed me to role the extra d8, normally granted to me by Dread Ambusher feature on the bonus attack that I would get on the first turn of initiative order, for the damage that I dealt to the creature; similarly to a rogues sneak attack.

Should a Gloom Stalker Ranger always get a additional d8 when attacking an unaware creature outside of initiative order?