What happen if the L1 cache has the address entry with write_back attribute. Will that address be available in L2 cache?

I have the TLB entry for a particular address. This address has write-back attributes in both L1 cache and L2 cache. My queries are: 1> if L1 cache entry has write-back, can it be write-back in L2? 2> if L1 cache entry has write-back, then updated values will not be written into DDR until we apply flush. Does the same behaviour like DDR is applicable for L2 cache also?

How to make a CTA for someone who only has a phone number and address?

I’m making a website for a mechanical engineer. All he has is a phone number and an email.

I’m assuming that having a “Contact Us” button would be the most common. But I’m wondering if there is a better way?

Perhaps having a form to fill out and send?

Any suggestions or pointers would be greatly appreciated!

Access to foreign memory address

Question is pretty simple. Modern operating system like windows 10 isolates memory addresses for his processes so … how is possible that Cheat Engine can gets these address and changing their values ? At this forum have been already Question “how get pointers to foreign address ” – and the answer is : it’s not possible, bacause OS has isolated addresses for his programs..

Why AWS distributes private key to address authentication problem?

AWS provides access to EC2 by downloading the private key(.pem) into management host that connects to EC2.

AWS uses openssl tool

Key providers generally provide public key but not private key, because with keypairs, one can encrypt either with public key or private key and decrypt with other key, as shown below:

$   openssl genrsa -out mykey 2048  $   cp mykey privatekey  $   openssl rsa -in mykey -pubout -out publickey   $   rm mykey  $   # Encrypt with public key  $   echo "the cat sat on the mat" | open ssl rsautl -encrypt -pubin -inkey publickey > ciphertxt  $   # cat cipher.txt  $   # cat cipher.txt | openssl rsautl -decrypt -inkey privatekey  

1) Why AWS distributes private key instead of public key? for secure communication…

2) Key pair is mainly to secure communication on the wire, but not authenticate user, to access a resource in AWS.

ssh -i something.pem user@ec2-public-dns-name

How does distribution of a key solve authentication problem? key can be stolen by any wrong person…Why AWS allow ssh login to EC2 without a password?

Should we allow email invitations sent to an email address to be used with another?

Let’s say I have a SaaS platform, like a B2B platform where there are company accounts.

In this platform users can invite other users to join the company account by sending them an invitation link in an email with a secure token (à la Google Drive or GitHub).

Should we then let the invited user subscribe using a different email from the one where they received the invitation ?

That question regards primarily UX experience, although some security concerns might also be raised (I couldn’t find a more appropriate site for that kind of questions).

What should a e-mail address confirmation e-mail say?

I’m sending out an e-mail containing a link to prove the user had registered with an e-mail address they have access to.

  1. What is the name of such an e-mail? Verification e-mail, confirmation e-mail, account activation or something else? In a similar sense what is the name of the link in the e-mail?

  2. What should the e-mail say? I want to make this accessible to non-technically inclined users.

  3. What should the subject of the e-mail be?

Doubt in expected number of probes in successful seach in open address hashing


My attempt:

I need to find exected number of probes in case of successful search. I am assuming, n elements and m slots in hash table

E(# of probes) = average of {1st probe success , 2nd probe success, …. nth probe success} over n

$ i^{th}$ probe success = $ (i-1)$ probes unsuccessful and ith probe successful = probability that (i-1) probes unsuccesful and last probe successful = $ (\alpha^{(i-1)})* \alpha$ –> Is this correct???

I am taking, probability that i-1 slots are filled up and those elements inside them are not equal to key k(unsuccesful) = $ (\alpha^{(i-1)})$

taking forward,

E(# of probes) = $ \frac{1}{n} \sum_{i=1}^n i*\alpha^i \neq \frac{1}{\alpha} \ln \frac{1}{1-\alpha}$

Please point my mistake.

Calculating page frame size from the physical address size

This question is in regards to the question below

The physical memory is split into physical pages (aka page frames), which have equal size. We know that the number of page frames in the physical memory equals the number of bytes in a page frame. We also know that physical addresses have 10 bits. How many bytes are in a page frame?

I am struggling with the link between physical addresses and the number of bytes in a page frame

I am correct in thinking the page frame must be the same size as the physical memory. Given that the physical address is 10 bits am I correct in saying

2^10 = 1KB = 1000 Bytes?