Does Time Stop apply a magical effect on only the caster, or does it affect everyone else too?

If the answers to this question are anything to go by, time stop seems to be a surprisingly nuanced spell, but one basic disagreement that’s appeared in the comments has been that one camp thinks time stop applies an effect only on the caster, whereas the other thinks it also applies a magical effect to everyone else, too.

Granted, time stop applies a magical effect on the caster – of that, I have no question. But does it also apply a magical effect on everyone else in the multiverse as well?

Why does time stop NOT apply a magical effect on other creatures

Here are the points I’ve understood for the side that thinks time stop applies only to the caster:

  1. It has a range of Self, meaning that it only applies a magical effect on the caster.

  2. There is no spell in D&D that applies an effect to every single creature in the multiverse, except maybe for wish.

Why DOES time stop apply a magical effect on other creatures

Here are the points from the side that thinks time stop applies a magical effect to everyone as well (I’m a member of this camp):

  1. Spells with a range of Self can still apply magical effects to other creatures, such as detect thoughts, dream, magic jar, and spirit guardians.

  2. The spell’s first sentence says: “You briefly stop the flow of time for everyone but yourself,” and that wording seems to directly state that everyone but the caster experiences a magical effect where the flow of time stops for them.

Consequences, implications

There are consequences for choosing one side over the other, which is the motivation for asking this question.

Consequences: Time stop does NOT apply a magical effect to other creatures

Going with the first camp, you can side step the confusion that comes with zones of antimagic and time stop. But, it doesn’t strictly follow the wording of the spell by ignoring the sentence “You briefly stop the flow of time for everyone but yourself.”

In addition, by claiming that spells with a range of Self do not impose a magical effect on other creatures, that same logic can be applied to, say, magic jar, where a humanoid inside a zone of antimagic can still be possessed because the spell has a range of Self, so it affects only the caster, and therefore the possession of other creatures is not a magical effect of the spell. The same logic can be applied to many other spells with a range of Self, some of which are listed above.

Consequences: Time stop DOES apply a magical effect to other creatures

Going with the second camp, yes, you can more closely follow the spell’s text as written. However, you also open the doors to the aforementioned confusion between zones of antimagic and time stop.

If time stop creates a magical effect on every other creature in the multiverse, across planes of existence (which seems to be the valid interpretation of “everyone but yourself” – and take note, this is a 9th level spell on par with wish), then being immune to it in any way (whether you’re inside a zone of antimagic, you are immune via the wish spell, or you’re one of the gods of the multiverse) will allow you to observe as everyone suddenly freezes in time whenever someone casts time stop.

It also fails to offer a resolution to the linked question, where initiative order between someone inside an antimagic field and a caster of time stop is not well defined.

The Question

With all the above in context, the question is as the title says: does Time Stop apply a magical effect on only the caster, or does it affect everyone else too?

Does the underlying computational calculus in type theories affect decidability?

I’m looking for a high-level explanation although if that isn’t possible or difficult, I’d prefer references to books/papers.

I understand that modern type theory is inspired by Curry-Howard correspondence. From the Wikipedia article on Curry-Howard correspondence:

The correspondence has been the starting point of a large spectrum of new research after its discovery, leading in particular to a new class of formal systems designed to act both as a proof system and as a typed functional programming language. … This field of research is usually referred to as modern type theory.

Looking at the various type theories proposed and under development, I have a few basic questions:

1. Most modern type theories marry a type system with lambda calculus. Are there examples where a type theory uses a computational calculus other than lambda calculus?

2. At a very high level, if every modern type theory is a bundle of a type system and a computational calculus and the computational calculus is turing-complete (like lambda calculus), does the computational calculus in any way affect the decidability of decision problems like type checking, type inference, etc.? (AFAIK modern type theories tweak the type system while keeping the associated turing-complete computational calculus intact and just tweaking the type system affects decidability of type checking, type inference, etc.)

What affect would 90 gallons of rain falling on 30 sq ft have?

Create or Destroy Water can create 10 gallons per upcast-level of rain in a 30ft cube, up to a total of 90 gallons. It can also be cast so it falls as rain.

It looks like that would produce a rainfall of about 100mm/hour or twice the violent shower listed here.

I’ve calculated that the water would reach terminal velocity almost instantly, and would fall at 0.01m/s for the whole 30ft height. That means the rain would last for ~15 minutes.

Would it count as difficult terrain, or some other effect?

For Ring of Shooting Stars, can Ball Lightning affect a creature when you move it into their space?

The Ring of Shooting Stars has the following feature (emphasis mine):

Ball Lightning.

You can expend 2 charges as an action to create one to four 3-foot-diameter spheres of lightning. The more spheres you create, the less powerful each sphere is individually.

Each sphere appears in an unoccupied space you can see within 120 feet of you. The spheres last as long as you concentrate (as if concentrating on a spell), up to 1 minute. Each sphere sheds dim light in a 30-foot radius.

As a bonus action, you can move each sphere up to 30 feet, but no farther than 120 feet away from you. When a creature other than you comes within 5 feet of a sphere, the sphere discharges lightning at that creature and disappears. That creature must make a DC 15 Dexterity saving throw. On a failed save, the creature takes lightning damage based on the number of spheres you created. (4 spheres = 2d4, 3 spheres = 2d6, 2 spheres = 5d4, 1 sphere = 4d12)

Does this mean that the sphere discharges lightning whether you move it within 5 feet of a creature or whether a creature moves within 5 feet of it?

What happens if you move it within 5 feet of multiple creatures at once (or multiple creatures move within 5 feet of it at once)?

How do attack rolls and criticals affect a 2d6 vs 1d12 damage roll? [duplicate]

For example, given the probability distribution between two similar weapons:


D&D 5E Weapons – Basic Rules pg.48:

Text


Damage Discrete Distribution – AnyDice:

Text2


Its evident that Greatsword is more reliable and has a higher mean damage roll.

But how does this change if we factor in an attack roll with some chance to hit? Do critical hits make the Greataxe preferential?

How does Truesight affect a shapechanger who grows/shrinks like a polymorphed dragon?

In searching for this answer, I did come across this post that is similar, though my question is more cosmetic than functional…

The sense of Truesight states:

A monster with truesight can […] perceive the original form of a shapechanger or a creature that is transformed by magic.

Many dragons, such as the Ancient Bronze Dragon have the action:

Change Shape. The dragon magically polymorphs into a humanoid or beast that has a challenge rating no higher than its own, or back into its true form.

I’ve always thought of True seeing as simply seeing things as they are in this regard, as seeing the white complexion of a changeling. However, while observing this trait from the dragon, something occurred to me that seems odd:
A wyrmling is a medium size, meaning there might not be much hight difference, but an ancient dragon is Gigantic, meaning their true form would be quite massive

So trying to visualize how this would seem tends to create certain issues:

  • The size of a dragon being now smaller could fit into spaces a large dragon could not
  • If the dragon used a form with additional limbs, such as a spider, would those appear to the creature with Truesight?
  • Given the size difference, how would one aim for the dragon?

Given that, I am wondering How would Truesight work on such a creature whos size changes, such as the dragon? Would they see a tiny dragon 6-7 ft tall? or be staring into space as they talked to it?

Another example of this is a polymorphed Tyrannosaurus… Would the truesight creature gain a disadvantage on the creature’s attacks, only seeing the person within?

Does Lightning Bolt affect everyone in its line of effect?

I’m looking for clarification on a spell effect. The specific spell in question is lightning bolt, 3rd-level Sorcerer/Wizard spell. It has an area of a 120-ft line. Does it pass through enemies? If I have 4 enemies in a line in range, does it hit all, or only the first? I saw Do enemies block line of effect?, but that only helped for 4e, this is PF which has different wording.

So does an enemy count as a “Solid Barrier” for the purpose of blocking the effect from going further? Any info is appreciated, especially if you can point me to a source I can reference in the future.

How does the help action affect lifting capacity?

Let’s say there are two PCs, both with 15 Strength. We’re using the Variant: Encumbrance rules and there is a body that they want to try carry between them which weights 250 lb.

How would I calculate their combined lift? Would I just add their strength together? In that case they would be heavily encumbered which would slow their movement by 20 ft.

Does the level 6 Barbarian Elk Totem affect travel via land vehicle?

I am looking at the level Elk Totems ability for my next level of Barbarian. Currently most of our travel time has been on foot, but our Noble Half-Elf Ranger wants to get herself a horse drawn carriage. Would the travel pace of the carriage be doubled? Since both mounted and foot travel is covered by this ability it would make sense that land vehicles should be as well. Water and magic vehicles would not be affected.

Sword Coast Adventurer’s Guide, pg. 122:

Elk. Whether mounted or on foot, your travel pace is doubled, as is the travel pace of up to 10 companions while they’re within 60 feet of you and you’re not incapacitated (see chapter 8 in the Player’s Handbook for more information about travel pace). The elk spirit helps you roam far and fast.