Does Rope Trick create an extradimensional space, or does the space already exist?

In my answer to this question, I used the fact that Rope Trick states

…an Invisible entrance opens to an extradimensional space that lasts until the spell ends.

After thinking about it for a while, I started to wonder if I was wrong. This sentence can be taken two ways – either the entrance lasts until the spell ends, or the extradimensional space lasts until the spell ends.

The text

Anything inside the extradimensional space drops out when the spell ends

implies that the space ceases to exist when the spell ends. But this is different from similar destruction of bigger-on-the-inside spaces, such as the Bag of Holding:

If the bag is overloaded, pierced, or torn, it ruptures and is destroyed, and its contents are scattered in the Astral Plane.

So… Does the space get created and cease to exist when the spell ends, or is it the entrance?

Do Grave Domain clerics get the additional Spare the Dying benefits if they already know the spell?

The Grave Domain Cleric learns the spare the dying cantrip at level 1 via the class feature Circle of Mortality, which also gives them extra benefits relating to it. Part of the description of the feature says (XGtE, pg. 20):

… In addition, you learn the spare the dying cantrip, which doesn’t count against the number of cleric cantrips you know. For you, it has a range of 30 feet, and you can cast it as a bonus action.

However, what if I multiclass into cleric and I already have the spare the dying cantrip (e.g. via having taken Magic Initiate before now or, in my case, via originally being a Warlock with the Undying patron, which also grants this cantrip at level 1)?

Similar bonus cantrips usually have wording more like the Light Domain Cleric (PHB, pg. 61):

When you choose this domain at 1st level, you gain the light cantrip if you don’t already know it.

The Circle of Mortality class feature doesn’t say something like “if you don’t already know it”. Thus, if I already have the cantrip, do the extra benefits still count (i.e. increased range and option to cast it as a bonus action) since this class feature was not the one to grant me this cantrip in the first place?

How do I handle initiative when a new force joins a combat that’s already in progress?

I am DMing a small hunger-games-like adventure where there are multiple parties of NPC who also are participating. It is pretty likely that the PCs will happen upon some of the NPCs fighting some monsters.

How do I handle the PCs joining the fight, do I roll initiative all over again? Do I just roll for the new combatants and add them to the round?


Also see this similar question for Pathfinder:
How to handle some new NPCs who enter a fight in progress?

Campaign in already existing world and story – fear of NPC domination

This is my first time running a campaign, with just some one-shots of experience.

I thought it would be easier for me to create a campaign in an already existing world that I know very well (World of Warcraft). However, since I would like for my players (who do not know the story at all) to experience the story and to follow some important characters, I fear that they might see their story and aventures as "secondary".

I definitely will allow them to change the story, apart from a few cases which I want to keep.

Do you have any tips on how to allow my players to experience the story arc of some important characters without giving them the feeling that it might not be "their" story and that they are not just spectating some NPCs?

Arcane Disciple when some spells are already on spell list

Was just looking for a bit of insight into the Arcane Disciple feat. A quick quote on what that does:

Add the chosen domain’s spells to your class list of arcane spells. If you have arcane spellcasting ability from more than one class, you must pick which arcane spellcasting ability this feat applies to. Once chosen, this decision cannot be changed for that feat. You may learn these spells as normal for your class; however, you use Wisdom (rather than the normal ability for your spellcasting) when determining the save DC for the spell. In addition, you must have a Wisdom score equal to 10 + the spell’s level in order to prepare or cast a spell gained from this feat. Each day, you may prepare (or cast, if you cast spells without preparation) a maximum of one of these domains spells of each level.

I’m looking into a summoner build, and want to get into Thaumaturgist as a sorcerer. I figured I’d take Arcane Disciple and pick the summoning domain for Lesser Planar Ally. As a sorcerer though, all the Summon Monster spells and Gate are already Sor/Wiz spells. Does this mean I now need 19 WIS to cast Gate and the appropriate WIS for Summon Monster 1/2/3/5/7? Or can I still use these spells as a sorcerer and just rely on CHA for the main stat?

For further context, Vow of Poverty is part of the character build for a bit of game-balancing flavour. Just wondering if I need to allocate one of my 4 stat increases to WIS. Otherwise I’d rather put my points into just about anything else. Has anyone seen any rules regarding this? Or is it just a straight "the spells in this domain list now rely on WIS", regardless of whether or not they were already on your class list?

Thanks,

Erik

Can I cast Aid to heal creatures already under the effect of Aid?

Suppose I have cast Aid on 3 of my allies, and those allies have all dropped to 0 hit points and fallen unconscious. I would like to get all of them back on their feet as quickly as possible. Can I cast Aid again to restore 5 hits points to each of my 3 allies who are already under the effect of another Aid spell? I know that spells of the same name don’t stack, so my 2nd casting of Aid won’t increase their maximum hit points any further. However, it’s not clear to me whether the hit point increase from Aid is any different from the healing provided by spells like Cure Wounds, so it’s not clear to me whether there is a stacking issue that would prevent this from working.

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In a machine learning system, why use differentially private SGD if our input data is already perturbed by a DP mechanism?

I’m trying to implement my own version of a deep neural network with differential privacy to preserve the privacy of the parties involved in the training dataset.

I’m using the method by Abadi et al. proposed in their seminal paper Deep Learning with Differential Privacy as the basis of my implementation. Now I have trouble understanding one thing in this paper. In their method, they propose a differentially private SGD optimisation function and they use an accountant to keep their privacy budget expenditure during each iteration. All of this makes sense: every time you query the data, you need to add controlled noise to it to mitigate the risk of leakage. But before they begin the training process, they add a differentially private PCA layer and filter their data through it.

My confusion is about why we do need to have DP-SGD after this (or the other way around, why DP-PCA when we’re already ensuring DP with our DP-SDG method). I mean, based on post-processing principle, if a mechanism is say (epsilon)-DP, any function performed on the output of that mechanism is also (epsilon)-DP. Now since we’re already applying an (epsilon)-differentially private PCA mechanism on our data, why do we need to have the whole DP-SGD process after that? I understand the problem with local DP and why it’s much more efficient to do global DP on the model instead of the training data, but I’m wondering if we’re already applying DP during the training phase, is it really necessary for the PCA to be DP as well or could we have just used normal DP or another dimensionality reduction method?

Help me I cannot link my font-awesome to my WordPress Theme. I have my font-awesome folder already in my project

My Path: C:\Users…….\Desktop……\coding\font-awesome-4.7.0\css

my header code:

GTCoding

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