Is there anything that can bypass temporary hit points?

I have found a wizard spell from The Book Of Lost Spells, called Soul Shield. In my opinion, it is super overpowered, but my DM has allowed it.

The spell says that a wizard can convert their "real" hit points into twice as many temporary hit points, so long as you always leave yourself on at least 1 "real" hit point.

I instantly saw how amazing this was, however it leaves me wondering if there was a poison, disease, monster ability or the like that bypasses the buffer provided by temporary hit points and removes my remaining "real" hit point.
I have looked for such an ability, yet found none.

Is there one?

My DM likes to take things from homebrews quite a lot, so long as they are balanced, and I have had a look through a number of different sources. As such, a homebrew compendium is an acceptable answer for this question, but please link the source.

The spell in question works as follows:

Soul Shield

2nd Level abjuration

Components: VS
Casting Time: 1 action
Duration: 1 hour
Concentration: No

You siphon some of your life force into a shimmering shield of light around yourself. Sacrifice any number of your hit points (up to your current total -1) when you cast the spell, and you immediately gain twice as many temporary hit points. You must leave yourself at least 1 “real” hit point. While any of those temporary hit points remain, you get tactical advantage on Dexterity and Constitution saving throws. Remaining temporary hit points disappear when the spell ends. The spell ends immediately if all the temporary hit points are lost.

I just realized my tax filer does not encrypt my password. Can I anything do for the financial data (eg SSN) that I gave?

Last year due to a complicated tax scenario (for my skills), I used an online tax website recommended by a friend to do my taxes. They were efficient in their job and I wanted to use their services again this year to save time. I had forgotten my password so tried to reset it. Turns out, they stored my password in plain text. Apparently that was to enable their staff to update any information that I provided in case it was incorrect.

I am worried about the financial data that I have already provided to them. I think as a user I have to consider it compromised. But I am a bit optimist so wondering if I can do anything to protect my data.

They don’t seem to be GDPR compliant so I don’t think they will simply delete my data but I definitely am going to request for it.

What creatures exist (besides the Githzerai) that associate psionics with anything besides Intelligence?

My understanding of psionics in D&D is that it is usually tied to Intelligence.

Going by player classes, the UA Mystic class was Intelligence-based, and going by monsters, many of them who are capable of psionics appear to be Intelligence-based as well, such as the Mind Flayers (MM, p. 222):

Innate Spellcasting (Psionics). The mind flayer’s innate spellcasting ability is Intelligence

However, I am aware that the Githzerai, both the playable race and the monsters, use Wisdom instead.

The playable race, from MToF (p. 96):

Githzerai Psionics.Wisdom is your spellcasting ability for these spells.

And an example of one of the "monsters", a Githzerai Monk (MM, p. 161):

Innate Spellcasting (Psionics). The githzerai’s innate spellcasting ability is Wisdom

Even the Githyanki (both playable race and monsters) use Intelligence, like most of the other psionic creatures in D&D. As far as I can tell, it’s just the Githzerai who are different in this regard.

I really want to ask "why do the Githzerai use Wisdom for psionics when everyone else uses Intelligence?", but that’s off-topic due to being a designer-reasons question. So instead, I will check my assumption, since I’m assuming that the Githzerai are the only ones who buck this trend, simply because I’ve not managed to find any further examples (i.e. "all swans are white").

Question

Are there any other creatures who have psionic abilities (and the ability must be called out, either in lore or with the psionics tag, as being psionic; not just any old source of psychic damage or similar effects) that are not tied to Intelligence? If so, what creatures don’t follow this pattern, and what do they use instead of Intelligence (if anything)? Or is it literally just the Githzerai who buck this trend?


My understanding is based on D&D 5e, but I’d be interested in answers that consider psionics throughout all editions of D&D if that wouldn’t be asking too much (and if such a question would even make sense, given how the rules change between editions). If such a question would be too broad, or wouldn’t make sense, I’m happy to reduce the scope back to "just D&D 5e".

In standard 5e, does elf weapon training do anything useful at character creation?

Working just with the basic game (read: PHB, no expansions), I was trying to outfit an elven cleric, but the starting equipment only includes simple weapons (or war hammer, which is only useful for dwarves). Do I really have to start with suboptimal simple weapons and upgrade to a longsword or longbow (replacing mace/crossbow, respectively) as funds become available?

This seems to be a broader problem than just the one I see here, because every class that allows you to equip martial weapons at the start also grants martial weapon abilities — making the elf weapon training redundant. Did I miss some special rule that allows you to treat "race-specific weapons" as simple weapons for initial character creation? I’d even be happy if shortsword was "simple", but it isn’t — and playing an elf who favors dwarf weapons seems kind of silly.

Does the “higher level spell slot” clause in Globe of Invulnerability do anything?

The spell “Globe of Invulnerability” says, in part:

Any spell of 5th level or lower cast from outside the barrier can’t affect creatures or objects within it, even if the spell is cast using a higher level spell slot (PHB p.245)

Interpretation 1: For example, Fireball is a level 3 spell, so it doesn’t affect anyone inside a Globe of Invulnerability, even if it’s cast as a level 6 spell.

Then I read the actual rules of the game:

When a spellcaster casts a spell using a slot that is of a higher level than the spell, the spell assumes the higher level for that casting. For instance, if Umara casts magic missile using one of her 2nd-level slots, that magic missile is 2nd level (PHB p.201).

Interpretation 2: Back to the example, Fireball is whatever level slot it’s cast with. Fireball in a level 6 slot is a level 6 spell. Level 6 spells affect someone in a Globe of Invulnerability. Therefore, Fireball cast as a level 6 spell affects someone in a Globe of Invulnerability.

Okay, but then why the heck does the spell say, “even if the spell is cast using a higher level spell slot”? There’s no such thing as a level-5-or-lower spell that’s cast with a level-6-or-higher slot!

I suspect the PHB editors just screwed up with their wording. I suspect that, if I asked a PHB editor what level Fireball was, they’d say “level 3”, not “whatever level slot is used to cast it.” Heck, that’s what I would say. It’s only because of spells like Counterspell, Dispel Magic, and Globe of Invulnerability that I’d pause and say, “Actually, no, 3 is the MINIMUM level slot that can be used to cast Fireball. Per the rule on p. 201, a spell is the level of the slot used to cast it.”

Any other insights on this?

Related questions:

Is a 1st-level spell cast using a 4th-level slot a 1st-level spell, or a 4th-level spell?

Can you use Wish to duplicate a spell at a higher level?

If anything can be verified efficiently, must it be solvable efficiently on a Non-Deterministic machine?

Suppose, I wanted to verify the solution to $ 2$ ^$ 3$ . Which is $ 8$ .

The $ powers~of~2$ have only one 1-bit at the start of the binary-string.

Verify Solution Efficently

n = 8 N = 3 IF only ONE 1-bit at start of binary-string:   IF total_0-bits == N:    if n is a power_of_2:      OUTPUT solution verified, 2^3 == 8 

A solution will always be approximately $ 2$ ^$ N$ digits. Its not possible for even a non-deterministic machine to arrive to a solution with $ 2$ ^$ N$ digits faster than $ 2$ ^$ N$ time.

Question

Can this problem be solved efficently in non-deterministic poly-time? Why not if the solutions can be verified efficently?

Is there anything preventing a familiar from Readying a Help action? [duplicate]

Suppose the following situation: I want a familiar to give me advantage on melee attacks via the help action. However, I do not want to be yet another adventurer with an owl familiar doing fly-by helps. Instead, I pick something smaller (say, a spider), and have it ride on me.

My idea is thus: The familiar, on its turn, readies an action to help me whenever I attack anybody. Seeing as I close to melee to do that, the familiar is within both 5ft of whoever they’re helping and the target, satisfying the range requirement. Is there a RAW reason this shouldn’t work?

Is there anything that lets me quickly figure out the distance from a safe jump point to the starport?

I realised something.

While reading the core rulebook I always assumed that the relevant distance for jumping into a system was the diameter of the systems star times one hundred, and I got the impression that it would take a few days to get from safe jump distance to the spaceport. However, while I was doing some calculations based on @paul-gilfedder great answer to this question I realised that Earth is orbiting outside of our stars diameter times one hundred.

Jump

I had been assuming that if Earth had a spaceport it would take 68h with a G1 drive to get from the spaceport to a safe jump distance, and that that was pretty standard for any solar system. However, if I understand this correctly it should take only 6h 20min to get from the jump point to Earths potential starport since it is only 1.276.000 km and not 140.000.000 that I assumed.

After this longwinded intro I get to my question: When the source material talks about a system and it’s main planet/starport is there any information included that lets me know what the travel time from safe jump distance to the spaceport is, or a way to infer it from the UPW? Makes a huge difference if the planets orbit is inside our outside of the stars 100D. For instance safe jump distance to Venus would be 32.000.000 km, which is 25 times that of Earth, because of this.

Does using VPN or encryption on an Android phone do anything since Google knows who is logged into the phone?

Is it worth paying for a VPN to protect myself from Google tracking since, on an Android phone, you’re logged into a Google account and Google knows who you are, anyway?

Google can still track your activities depending on what Android OS reports to them. A related question would be whether encrypted messaging and email apps protect you on an Android since, once again, the OS is designed by Google and the OS can theoretically see the decrypted messages.