Does Barkskin cast before Wild Shaping apply to your beast form?

Assume you cast Barkskin in humanoid form:

You touch a willing creature. Until the spell ends, the target’s skin has a rough, bark-like appearance, and the target’s AC can’t be less than 16, regardless of what kind of arm or it is wearing.

It is clear that under the rules of Wild Shape “transforming doesn’t break your concentration on a spell you’ve already cast”, but does the effect of the spell carry over to your new skin?

Does Powerful Build apply to a goliath werebear’s beast and hybrid forms?

I am playing a Goliath Barbarian and recently have contracted Lycanthropy of the Werebear variety.

According to the MM on page 207 it states that a character who becomes a lycanthrope retains their class statistics but I don’t specifically see if it states that I can use my abilities while transformed. Maybe I’ve overlooked something.

My question is:

While shapechanged in Bear and Hybrid forms, does my Goliath ability Powerful Build still apply (also all other race/class abilities, i.e. Rage)? When transformed my size becomes Large; would I then count as Huge for all weight related rules, i.e. Carrying Capacity, Push, Lift, Drag?

Does the Thrown Weapon Fighting Style apply to ranged, improvised attacks?

The Thrown Weapon Fighting Style states:

[…] In addition, when you hit with a ranged attack using a thrown weapon, you gain a +2 bonus to the damage roll.

My question is whether "a thrown weapon" means "a weapon with the thrown property" or "a weapon you have thrown". An example of something being in the latter category and not the former would be improvised weapons:

[…] If a character uses a ranged weapon to make a melee attack, or throws a melee weapon that does not have the thrown property, it also deals 1d4 damage. An improvised thrown weapon has a normal range of 20 feet and a long range of 60 feet.

Do ranged, improvised attacks counts as "ranged attacks with a thrown weapon"?

Why do we assume that PHB rules apply to monsters?

The party is deep into my 5e-updated classic Greyhawk Giants series.

They are returning the body of a stone giant killed in the siege of Headwater to the stone giant’s clan. The Thane of the Stone Giants intends to hold Funerary Games in honor of his slain kinsman and invite the PC’s to participate. One of the games will be unarmed combat.

In calculating an unarmed strike from a stone giant, I understand that the damage from the strike will be 7 points (1+ the stone giant Str mod). For the attack roll, however, I was unsure of whether to give the stone giants their proficiency bonus.

This question about unarmed bugbears, this question about unarmed skeletons, and this question about unarmed Flameskulls (?!), all have answers which state that monsters get to add their proficiency bonus to unarmed attacks, with the last question containing an answer from luminary SevenSidedDie stating as a general principle that "creatures always have proficiency with their unarmed strike".

As justification for this position, these answers cite some variation of the Player’s Handbook, PHB errata, or D&D Beyond, quoting "You are proficient with your unarmed strikes." None of the comments question this justification, and some support it.

Perhaps it is because I came to 5e from earlier editions, but my working assumption is that monsters / NPC’s have stat blocks, not character levels, and don’t necessarily follow the rules in the PHB. I read "You are proficient" and intuitively feel like ‘you’ means ‘You PC’s’, not ‘All creatures’. I don’t see anything in the Monster Manual that says that monsters in general follow the rules of the PHB or are proficient in unarmed strikes; I do see sidebars noting that monsters are proficient with their "armor, weapons, and tools" and that grappling rules work differently for many monsters compared to PC’s.

Under the general principles of "there are no secret rules", and "abilities do what they say they do", where can I find a general statement saying that monsters follow the rules of the PHB, and that such "you" statements apply to them as well?

Related: Are monsters subject to the massive-damage instant-death rules?

Related: Is the telepathy rule in the Monster Manual only applicable to monster telepathy abilities?

Does Elemental Affinity apply to Create Bonfire?

Elemental Affinity

Starting at 6th level, when you cast a spell that deals damage of the type associated with your draconic ancestry, add your Charisma modifier to that damage. At the same time, you can spend 1 sorcery point to gain resistance to that damage type for 1 hour.

Create Bonfire:

You create a bonfire on ground that you can see within range. Until the spell ends, the magic bonfire fills a 5-foot cube. Any creature in the bonfire’s space when you cast the spell must succeed on a Dexterity saving throw or take 1d8 fire damage. A creature must also make the saving throw when it moves into the bonfire’s space for the first time on a turn or ends its turn there.

The spell does not deal damage directly, it creates a bonfire, and the bonfire can potentially deal damage. But then perhaps that’s the same as creating a fireball, the spell doesn’t deal damage, the giant burning ball of flame it creates deals damage.

However, create Bonfire is Conjuration, whereas Fireball is Evocation, so perhaps it’s different.

I suppose the difference is that it could be a few turns later that someone steps in the fire and gets burned.

Does it count?

When extra damage dice are listed in a critical effect, do they apply to crit-immune targets?

In the immunity rules, we read:

Immunity to critical hits works a little differently. When a creature immune to critical hits is critically hit by a Strike or other attack that deals damage, it takes normal damage instead of double damage. This does not make it immune to any other critical success effects of other actions that have the attack trait (such as Grapple and Shove).

My interpretation of this rule is that the normal doubling of damage does not occur, but any other listed affects of a critical success do occur. I believe this is the accepted interpretation of the rule, as well.

Now, about the spell Hydraulic Push. This spell reads a bit unusual, because it normally does 3d6 damage (and 5 feet of knockback), but has a listed critical effect that instead does 6d6 damage (and 10 feet of knockback). This is notably different from the standard/basic critical effect of rolling normal damage and then doubling it.

When Hydraulic Push crits against a crit-immune creature, how much damage does it do? And more generally, are extra damage dice listed under a critical effect applied to crit-immune targets?

Does the +1 enchant bonus for masterwork weapons apply to enchantment cost calculation?

A weapon must be masterwork to be enchanted, it also must have +1 enhancement bonus before it can be enchanted. Does the +1 enhancement bonus* from being masterwork apply?

Example Calculation: +1 Benevolent Rapier

Rapier 20gp

Masterwork 300gp

Benevolent 2000gp

Total: 2320gp

*Note: This is a non-magical bonus to attack rolls

Does a monk’s Unarmored Movement speed increase apply to the fly speed gained from a Fly spell?

A monk’s Unarmored Movement class feature increases the monks speed by 10 feet at level 2, and further at higher levels. According to this Sage Advice, this stacks with an Aarakocra monk’s fly speed, because that fly speed is innate to the race.

However, how does this interact with fly speeds gained from other sources, such as the Fly spell? That spell specifically states that “the target gains a flying speed of 60 feet for the duration.” Can this gained flying speed then be improved by a monk’s Unarmored Movement, giving a level 2 monk a flying speed of 70 feet with the Fly spell cast on them?