Appropriate database schema for heroes’ skills in a Tower Defense game?

In a Tower Defense game, each hero (or character) has some skills. Each skill has some "chance of appearance" (CoA for short) when attacking enemies and if appeared it has some "hit accuracy" (i.e. hit on enemies) (HA for short) and has effects on the enemies (if hit by the skill) (EoH for short).


Skill #1: Frost 1, CoA: 50%, HA: 100%, EoH: (1) slow enemy down for 4s and (2) yield 200 damage points.

Skill #2: Frost 2, CoA: 100%, HA: 50%, EoH: (1) make enemy frozen for 8s.

I first tried to breakdown skills into "atomic" effects and come up with tables as below:

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All looks good?

But now we want to update Skill #1 a bit to make it more complicated:

Skill #1: Frost 1, CoA: 50%, HA: 100%, EoH: (1) slow enemy down by 40% for 4s and (2) yield 200 damage points. (Please pay attention to the 40% here!)

Or even coming up with more complicated skills:

Skill #3: Frost 3, CoA: 20%, HA: 100%, EoH: (1) frozen enemy for the first 4s then slow enemy down by 50% for next 4s and (2) yield 200 more damage points.

Skill #4: Frost 4, CoA: 10%, attack enemy 3 times continuously, each time: HA: 50%, EoH: (1) frozen enemy for the first 2s then slow enemy down by 50% for next 2s and (2) yield 400 more damage points.

Each effect now has more parameters to be specified — which makes my current schema not fit anymore. Please help deal with this!

When is it appropriate to contest a GM?

Ι am struggling to find helpful information about when it is appropriate for a player to challenge a GM’s decision.

There was a recent question which triggered this "old chestnut" for me: Does a Swarmkeeper lose their swarm if they die?

If a GM decides that a Swarmkeeper Ranger permanently loses his/her swarm when they die for the fist time and there is not a way to recover the swarm, then -in my books- the GM has gone too far with their "it’s my way or the highway" attitude. And, this is not in the spirit of the game.

I’ve had other experiences similar to this, where the GM removed the soul of my PC -because he didn’t like it- and, when my PC "died", he said "sorry unresurrectable" by any means. Yet, everyone else’s characters were resurrected many, many times.

On another occasion a GM specifically targeted one of the other player’s PC by a mob with CR that wa enough to wipe-out a five-person L15 party, yet the player’s PC was only one level 10 character. The reasoning, the mindless mobs had a thing for Gnomes! The player was really upset and it ruined the session.

I have been myself a GM for donkeys’ years… and I allow my players to contest certain things. …I may even backtrack at times if what they explained makes good sense or there is not a RAW/RAI rule to fall back on. It might even become a house rule after that at the table.

It would help to have some guidance on this. D&D is a game that is meant to be fun for the GM and players alike. Yes, with fun dramatic moments, but these examples are not in the spirit of "fun". In none of the examples I gave did any of the other players think those rulings were fair.

So, is there any guidance in the D&D literature about how to resolve these sort of disputes, other than "The GM always has the final say!"?

I would appreciate answers from any of the D&D editions and/or concrete examples from experienced GMs.

Can a character with the Magic Initiate feat use the appropriate arcane/druidic/holy focus?

The Magic Initiate feat lets you pick a few spells from a number of classes’ spell lists, each of which has their own rules for using a focus in place of material components – notably, it excludes the one casting class that cannot use a focus of any kind, the Ranger.

Also notably, while the feat makes it explicit that you use the appropriate attribute to cast that class’ spells – but not that you gain the use of the appropriate focus. Is there a reason to believe you also gain the ability to use the focus, as per the appropriate class’ Spellcasting (or Pact Magic) feature?

New “Touched” feats, what exactly does ‘appropriate level mean?

So in our RPG group there is a difference in opinion on what ‘appropriate level’ actually means in the context of the spell.

One interpretation means you can’t cast invisibility or Misty step with a first level spell slot.

The second interpretation means you can’t cast the chosen first level spell at higher spell slot levels.

Which interpretation is correct?

Which Artificer Infusions are appropriate for the Armorer’s Arcane Armor’s special weapon?

At 9th level, the Armorer Artificer (from Tasha’s Cauldron of Everything) gains the "Armor Modifications" feature :

You learn how to use your artificer infusions to specially modify your Arcane Armor. That armor now counts as separate items for the purposes of your Infuse Items feature: armor (the chest piece), boots, helmet, and the armor’s special weapon. Each of those items can bear one of your infusions, and the infusions transfer over if you change your armor’s model with the Armor Model feature. In addition, the maximum number of items you can infuse at once increases by 2, but those extra items must be part of your Arcane Armor.

This special weapon is called ‘Thunder Gauntlets’ (a simple melee weapon) for the ‘Guardian’ Armor Model, and ‘Lightning Launcher’ (a simple ranged weapon) for the ‘Infiltrator’ Model.

But I am wondering which Artificer Infusions are appropriate for this special weapon ? Is it only the ‘Enhanced Weapon’ and ‘Radiant Weapon’ infusions, or are there others ?

What is an ‘appropriate number’ of ‘significant foes’ for the purposes of Never Conquered, Never Feared?

So, I’m giving the players in my campaign a free Story Feat because I think they’re cool from a hand-curated list of choices that they and I feel are appropriate to their characters backgrounds and their motivations.

One of my players has chosen the feat ‘Never Conquered, Never Feared’ from the AP War of the Crown, which states as its goal:

You must individually slay an appropriate number of significant foes in succession, without retreating or withdrawing from a fight.

I’m trying to figure out exactly how to interpret this and would welcome some other peoples’ opinions. Looking at the rules for story feats an ‘Appropriate Number’ of foes is defined as:

These are either creatures whose individual CRs add up to 20, or creatures whose individual CRs add up to 5 times your character level, whichever is greater.

But these rules also define a ‘Challenging Foe’ as:

This is a foe or group of foes with a total CR of 10 or a CR of 3 plus your character level, whichever is higher.

However, the feat’s wording does not state ‘Challenging Foes’ but ‘significant foes’, so can I assume the definition of a Challenging Foe does not apply?

Also, would I be correct in assuming that ‘individually slay’ means ‘by yourself, with no help’?

Is adjusting damage type an appropriate power level for bestow curse?

A rather creative cleric in my game’s party has presented with a new curse they want to use. The new curse is:

All damage the target creature takes is treated as the damage type to which the creature is most vulnerable

This curse basically removes any sort of damage reduction from the game, plus it can even make all damage the players do to monsters more powerful than intended. Our evoker, for instance, can memorize only powerful fire spells with confidence that those fire spells will have full effectiveness on creatures. The cleric is prepared to heighten spell to keep the saving throw as high as possible.

Is this curse:

  1. Appropriate for bestow curse
  2. Too strong for bestow curse but appropriate for bestow curse, greater
  3. Inappropriate for a permanent debuff

I don’t consider this a homebrew question since bestow curse explicitly encourages creation of new curses. I have just always had difficulty judging the power of curses

Is it appropriate approach to simulate shadowing via occlusion culling of lights?

I have own deferred renderer and a scene with both closed and open spaces. I want to prevent light passing though solid objects. For example, there can be a house with a lot of point lights inside. I want to prevent lighting of objects outside the house, but it is not always possible to adjust appropriate falloff distance.

And it seems that creating shadows maps for each of them will require a lot of time and memory. So I could try another approach – create some set of bounding primitives for each light source and perform occlusion culling with all of them to determine whether some space is affected by the source.

Is this method appropriate for the described situation or maybe is there any other methods to simulate shadowing?

What language would be appropriate for texts to be written in about Thor (Forgotten Realms)?

In our LMoP campaign, there is a Cleric whose deity is Thor. He has come across several texts that discuss Thor (myths and religious texts).

What language would those texts most likely be written in?

(I don’t know if this is helpful context, but he is a Wood Elf).

Would Illuski (Nordic) languages be appropriate here?

Is this monster Level Appropriate?

It’s been a while, but I decided to take one of my Pathfinder 1e Dungeons and transfer it into Pathfinder 2e. That being said, I could not find a Kyrana anywhere in the Pathfinder 2e Bestiary, so I took a shot at rebuilding it using the rules found in the Pathfinder 2e Gamemastery Guide. In my experience, a level 1 party of 2 could fight this creature, albeit with some difficulty. With that in mind, I used the metrics for a Level 1 Creature to recreate it:

NE MEDIUM FIRE DRAGON | Creature Level 1

Perception : +6|60ft Darkvision|Low-Light Vision

Languages : Draconic

Skills : Climb +9

Str +3 | Dex +3 | Con +2 | Int -4 | Wis -1 | Cha -3

AC 13, Fort +7, Ref +7, Will +4

HP 35; Immunities: Fire; Weaknesses: Cold 5

Speed 30ft

Melee * Claws+8 | Agile (-4 to hit on second attack and -8 to hit on third attack (instead of -5/-10)) | 1D4

Melee * Bite+8 | 1D4+2

Breath Weapon ** Arcane, Evocation, Fire | 3D6 damage in a 20ft line (DC 13 Relfex to halve). Cannot use again until 1D4 turns later

Firey Regeneration | During any turn a Kyrana would normally take FIRE damage, it gains Regeneration 10 until the end of its next turn. It cannot use its Breath Weapon on itself to activate this effect

That all being said, Is this creature too strong for its level?