How to solve following tree problem with number assigned to each node?

I have a tree whose nodes have numbers assigned to them initially. A series of $ Q$ queries are asked from $ n=0$ to $ n=Q-1$ seconds. During end of each second numbers on a node (which are not leaf) are removed and gets transferred to each direct child node. Numbers on leaf node remain as it is and number coming from parent gets added to them. At each query it is possible that new number is added to a node. How to solve this efficiently?

Example: Suppose I have a tree 1—–2——3——-4 (1 is parent). Suppose at beginning numbers on nodes are 1, 2, 3, 4 respectively. Then at…

At zero second end 5 is added to node zero. At end of 0 seconds numbers on node are 5, 1, 2, 7. (Note 1 is not added to 5 because it is removed).

At one second end, 1 is added to node 4, then numbers are 0, 5, 1, 10. Fourth node has number 10 since it received 2 from parent node and 1 is added and 7 was present on it.

Now suppose at two second end, I am asked to tell number on 2nd node?Answer is 0.

I mean that in each query either a number can be added on a node or a question can be asked like – what is number on $ ith$ node?
How to solve this in less than $ O(nQ)$ . Where $ n$ is number of nodes and $ Q$ is number of queries?

In the Absalom Initiation, should PC’s be assigned quests from all 4 districts?

The Absalom Initiative as a replayable Pathfinder Society adventure. The players start off at a party where:


This is fine and all, but:

This will be the first Pathfinder Society event I have GM’d. Is there something I am missing in the adventure? If not, how should I handle this situation?

Synchronizing Outlook Calendar Categories with a Sharepoint calendar using email address assigned to SP calendar

I have a SharePoint calendar configured with an incoming email and want to populate events with categories in the SharePoint calendar by sending events from Outlook to SharePoint. I have the same categories in Outlook and in the SharePoint calendar.

When I enter in Outlook an event with a category directly in the SharePoint calendar connected to Outlook, then the category is correctly updated in the calendar on SharePoint.
However, when I create an event with the same category in Outlook using my Outlook Exchange Account and send the event to the SharePoint calendar’s incoming email address, then the event in SharePoint does not contain the category.

Has anyone been able to get this to work or has suggestions for workarounds using the incoming email feature?

We are using Outlook 2013 and Sharepoint 2013.

Getting Errors and have to re add user to members group in order to be able to “contribute” to the task assigned to her

Good day,

Recently we been having issues with one user account specific in our environment, when the workflow assign a task to this specific user she receive the email but cannot interact with the task as it says (this site has not been shared with you).

This has been happening to this user only and all the others 1000+ are fine. To fix this issue I normally have to remove the user from the members group and re add her and then she is able to interact with the task.

I opened ULS Viewer and found errors in the log file regarding UPN and account not being found.

SPSecurityContext: Could not retrieve a valid windows identity for username ‘domain\username’ with UPN ‘’. UPN is required when Kerberos constrained delegation is used. Exception: System.ServiceModel.FaultException1[System.ServiceModel.ExceptionDetail]: WTS0003: The caller is not authorized to access the service. (Fault Detail is equal to An ExceptionDetail, likely created by IncludeExceptionDetailInFaults=true, whose value is: System.UnauthorizedAccessException: WTS0003: The caller is not authorized to access the service.
at Microsoft.IdentityModel.WindowsTokenService.CallerSecurity.CheckCaller(WindowsIdentity callerIdentity)
at Microsoft.IdentityModel.WindowsTokenService.S4UServiceContract.PerformLogon(Func
1 logonOperation, Int32 pid)
at SyncInvokeUpnLogon(Object , Object[] , Object[] )
at System.ServiceModel.Dispatcher.SyncMethodInvoker.Invoke(Object instance, Object[] inputs, Object[]& outputs)
at System.ServiceModel.Dispatcher.DispatchOperationRuntime.InvokeBegin(MessageRpc& rpc)
at System.ServiceModel.Dispatcher.ImmutableDispatchRuntime.ProcessMessage5(MessageRpc& rpc)
at System.ServiceModel.Dispatcher.ImmutableDispatchRuntime.ProcessMessage31(MessageRpc& rpc)
at System.ServiceModel.Dispatcher.MessageRpc.Process(Boolean isOperationContextSet))..

And in a separate line

No windows identity for Domain\username.

Also the Claim to Windows Token Service is started

I check AD Users and Computers and the UPN match what there, also double check the account has claim base authentication. Now every time a task comes in for this user I have to re assign permissions.

Anyone can help would be greatly appreciated.


Can I book a Schengen Visa for Germany to a different consulate if the consulates assigned for my state do not have appointments?

I am non-resident alien (not a permanent resident) residing in Seattle, Washington, USA.

The German consulate assigned for my state is San Fransisco. The earliest available appointment is 2.5 months away.

However, I need to make a business trip to Germany in 2 months. My wife will be accompanying me on a tourist Visa.

I was able to book an appointment in Washington DC 1 month away. However, I do not want to fly from Seattle to Washington DC to be rejected due to this.

Has anyone does this before? What can I do to make sure my appointment is either not cancelled or the application rejected due to this.

I am also open to traveling to another country for a longer duration since my business trip is only for 2 days. Will Germany be considered my main destination since I am applying for a business Visa there, or can I apply to another country as a main destination, if I stay there longer?

Can I leverage the OOB Assigned To Email Notification functionality to send an email to the Created By user?

I have an Issues List with customization in SharePoint that I’ve chose to enable email notifications to the Assigned To person after the issue is assigned.

I’d like to also send an email notification to the user who created the issue (Created By). Ideally, the email will look the same as the one sent by SharePoint to the Assigned To person, showing a Display View of the form in the body of the email and indicating which fields have changed.

Is this possible? I know enough about JavaScript and jQuery to modify code to my needs, but not enough to come up with something on my own. I do not have access to the server or to SharePoint Designer.


If AD user profile is deleted – effect on Sharepoint data (created by, modified by, historic assigned tasks…)

I’m a SP Admin with a basic understanding of how AD and Sharepoint interact. I’ve had a request from management “…to remove former employee names from Sharepoint”. While I’ve taken care of the SP permissions aspect of this, names are still found on e.g. shared documents. They might just want to remove these ‘share exceptions’ and there’s no need to keep this info, since the employees have left the firm, they can’t access these files anyway.

What effect would deleting the AD user profiles have on Sharepoint?

  • Would it remove the ‘share exceptions’?
  • What about adverse effects – would files lose their meta-data (Created By, Modified By).
  • What would happen to people/group fields (e.g. task ‘Assigned To’ fields) – would the employee name remain here?

I found a similar post here, which suggests that deleting the AD profile wouldn’t have adverse effects on document and list meta-data. It’s more my lack of understanding of the programming elements in this answer that make me cautious (Trevor’s a well-known contributor on this site).

How to define the number of people assigned to an activity in a friendly way (with regular updates)?

I work on a gaming web app. The user (player) has to assign people to different kind of activities on multiple views. Each view has 1 to 5 activities and a max amount of people. The user can assign 0 to MAX people split between the activities. The max amount of people will increase through the time.

Here a example for one of these views. Let’s say there are 3 activities (A, B, C) and 10 people available. Below some example of possible distributions:

           A | B | C | Total  case 1:   10| 0 | 0 | 10  case 2:   3 | 3 | 4 | 10  case 3:   1 | 0 | 2 | 3  case 4:   0 | 1 | 3 | 4 

The user will regularly update these assignments. And I’m looking for a way to manage it easily.

I thought about the following elements/ui.

Sliders : the percentage of people assigned is important, that’s why I thought about sliders. Sometimes the user doesn’t care if 4 or 5 people are assigned to an activity, he just wants a 50-50 distribution. Con: it’s not easy for the user to define a specific amount of people (number input next to the slider?)


[+][-] buttons with input number: the user can click on plus or minus buttons or directly define the number of people assigned to the activity. Percentage could also be displayed next to the input. Con: the user can’t assign all the remaining people available without calculation (or spamming [+] icon).


Zero, decrease, increase, max: may be something similar to page navigation could also be useful. It’s like [-][+] but also allows the user to assign all the remaining people if needed. May be arrows aren’t a good UI choice but just to give you an idea:


What do you think? Should I try a mix with [-][+] and min/max with the percentage displayed? Is the sliders could help?

How are UUIDs assigned in P2P protocols

I am learning about P2P in general (mainly blockchain). I know many P2P protocols uses a distributed hash table for node lookup (kademlia) that maps UUIDs of nodes to their addresses.

I am curious about the most common way of UUID assignment.

Do nodes generate their own UUIDs? This would be dangerous since a naive or malicious node could generate an already existing uuid, right?

Or do some kind of boot nodes generate UUIDs for the joining nodes by wrapping a UUID in a certificate that normal nodes later can verify (since they all trust the boot nodes). The boot nodes would act as certificate authorities. It feels like using centralized CAs goes against the purpose of a P2P network though…

Or are some kind of Web of Trust used, where nodes vouch for each others UUID?

How are UUIDs commonly assigned in a P2P protocol?