Can you benefit from Horde Breaker if you attack as part of Booming Blade or Green Flame Blade?

The booming blade and green-flame blade cantrips from the Sword Coast Adventurer’s Guide both have the particularity of including a single melee weapon attack as part of their casting.

Several martial abilities, like Extra Attack or the Martial Arts’s bonus attack, do not work with these cantrips because they require the Attack action to be used.

However, the Hunter Ranger’s Horde Breaker ability (which lets you do an additional attack on another target with the same weapon once per turn) only requires an attack with a weapon, not necessarily the Attack action. Therefore, I’m wondering if a Hunter Ranger with Horde Breaker could get that additional-attack-on-different-target-with-same-weapon when using booming blade or green-flame blade.

Can a readied range attack provoke an attack from the intended target?

Pathfinder 1e rules question…

A and B are medium sized creatures. A is a ranged character, B is a melee character.

Lets say A readies a ranged attack at anyone that comes into visibility. No enemies are visible nor within range at the moment.

Lets say B (an enemy of A) appears to A as part of their move + attack turn. B appears by moving adjacent to A — perhaps because B is in fog/stinking cloud and comes within 5 feet, or perhaps the room is in darkness and A only has a candle illuminating 5 feet.

So A gets to use their readied action — they see B, and they shoot (with appropriate miss chances and such). Does B get an AOO in addition to their planned attack?

I would guess that no, B does not get an AOO, for at least 1 of 2 reasons:

  • B becomes visible to A as B is entering the adjacent square, and thus I believe A’s attack would interrupt B’s movement and B is technically not in melee range when the ranged attack is made.

  • I’m not even sure you can make an attack of opportunity when it is your turn, or, if you can AoO when you are triggering the readied action on your turn. (Can B even take AoOs on their turn in PF1e?)

There is a similar question for 4e supporting my guess, but I’m not familiar with 4e and am unaware of the rules differences. That question is here: If a readied ranged attack action is used against the appearance of a burrowing creature, does the attack provoke an attack of opportunity?

However, I couldn’t find a discussion/ruling for PF1e — either my google skills failed me or it hasn’t been asked.

Sneak attack when an ally has been swallowed?

Our delightful barbarian decided to get swallowed by a Behir, Our scout rogue decided to stick an arrow in the unfortunate beast and claimed sneak attack as the barbarian was restrained but not incapacitated and technically inside the behir’s stomach is within 5 feet of it. Our DM said no chance after we couldnt find a ruling. Any thoughts would be greatly appreciated.

How can I calculate the optimal amount of attack bonus to give up when using Power Attack?

The Power Attack feat lets you sacrifice attack bonus (AB) to increase your damage.

It’s easy to see that you don’t always want to give up the same amount of AB, and that the optimal amount (assuming you’re trying to maximize your expected damage output) depends on multiple factors. Consider the following two degenerate cases where it’s easy to see that the optimal choice differs:

  1. If your opponent’s AC is so much higher than your AB that you will only ever hit them by rolling a natural 20, then you clearly want to sacrifice the maximum possible amount of AB, since it won’t affect your chance to hit at all (5% in any case), and maximizing your Power Attack damage will result in more damage if you do roll the natural 20.
  2. If your foolish DM has granted you the legendary +Graham’s Number Sword of Munchkinry at level 1, then you clearly don’t want to use Power Attack at all (unless you’ll only miss on a natural 1), because your base damage is so high that even a 5% decrease in your chance to hit will utterly dwarf any piddly damage you get from sacrificing your 1 BAB.

In between these silly cases, though, I’m not sure how to determine the best amount of AB to sacrifice when using Power Attack. It’s not even clear to me what information I need to do so, though I think it includes some or all of the following:

  • The attacker’s AB
  • The defender’s AC
  • The attacker’s BAB (because it’s the maximum amount of AB they can subtract)
  • The number of attacks the attacker is making (if they’re making a full attack)
  • The amount of damage the attack(s) will do on hit
  • How much damage the attacker gains per point of sacrificed AB (e.g., 2 points when using a 2-handed weapon instead of 1 point for a 1-handed weapon)
  • Whether the attack could crit, and its crit stats (range/multiplier) if so

Given this sort of info, how can I calculate the amount of AB to sacrifice to Power Attack that maximizes my expected damage output for the round?

A couple notes:

  • I will happily upvote partial solutions (e.g., ones that only apply to a single attack without considering iteratives, or ones that ignore crits for simplicity’s sake)
  • Ignore considerations that require you to know how close to death the defender is. I’m happy with answers that naively maximize the expected value of my damage output against an idealized combat dummy with infinite HP. Accounting for the desire to maximize the probability of dealing lethal damage against low-HP opponents is, I think, too complicated, and beyond the scope of this question.
  • Ignore the Shock Trooper feat for purposes of this question; obviously if you’re giving up AC for damage instead of AB, it’s a risk/reward judgment call, not a case where there’s an objectively optimal value.

When should initiative be rolled during a surprise attack?

This question does a good job explaining how surprise attacks work for the most part, but I’m not sure how such an attack would actually play out, here is what happened in my last game:

There was a group of enemy creatures, and the heroes were successfully avoiding notice nearby (I guess they were effectively hiding), watching the creatures and planning what to do while unnoticed.

After agreeing upon a plan, one of the PCs made a ranged attack against an enemy. This catched the enemy flat-footed against the attack, but the PC became observed by everyone after resolving it.

I decided to roll initiative and start the encounter at this point since it made the most sense at the time, but after reading the rules I’m not sure if this played out correctly.

Should initiative have been rolled just before the attack? This seems unfair to the heroes, since according to Avoid Notice it would force another Stealth check to see if the enemies notice them, but the heroes have not done anything yet to break their hiding. And then, if they succeed on the check, what is the point of the enemy turns?, since the heroes are still unnoticed, the enemies would do nothing until the heroes act.

This leads me to believe that the encounter should have started at the moment the heroes spotted the enemy: initiative is rolled according to Avoid Notice and if the heroes succeed on the Stealth check against the Perception DC of the enemies, they remain unnoticed. And all the watching and planning would have ocurred in Encounter Mode (a very long and pointless encounter for the most part).

If this is the correct approach, the heroes could decide to coordinate and attack all at the same time, by delaying to set their turns one after the other, and readying an attack just before the start of the turn of the first hero, so everyone would use their readied attack and then have their full turn before any enemy gets to act. Is this right?

Can a Swashbuckler Rogue use sneak attack on an isolated target at OVER five feet(Ranged)?

There are a few questions SIMILAR to this that I’ve found on the website, but none cover this exact issue.

Can a Swashbuckler Rogue use their Rakish Audacity feature to sneak attack with a ranged weapon? Assuming there are no other enemies around either the Rogue or Target. The wording of the subclass feature implies no, but it’s too confusing to say for sure.

Can a standard Kobold Warrior make a Sneak Attack with a spear?

The standard Kobold Warrior has the Sneak Attack ability, which specifies:

The kobold warrior deals an extra 1d4 precision damage to flat-footed creatures.

But the general description of the Sneak Attack ability in the glossary says:

When the monster Strikes a creature that has the flat-footed condition with an agile or finesse melee weapon, an agile or finesse unarmed attack, or a ranged weapon attack, it also deals the listed precision damage. For a ranged attack with a thrown weapon, that weapon must also be an agile or finesse weapon.

The preface to Creature Abilities also says:

The statistics for individual creatures might alter the traits, the number of actions, or other rules of these abilities. Anything noted in a specific creature’s stat block overrides the general rules for the ability below.

The only weapons the kobold warrior has are a spear and a sling. Does this mean that he can only use his sneak attack with the sling (since a spear doesn’t have the agile or finesse traits)? Or is its own description of the Sneak Attack ability overriding the general one, and removing all the prerequisites?