Why would a certificate authority have multiple root certificates?

When I look at the trusted certificates in my browser, I see that many certificate authorities have multiple root certificates associated with them. For example, org-Amazon has Amazon Root CA 1, Amazon Root CA 2, Amazon Root CA 3, and Amazon Root CA 4.

How do the purposes of these four certificates differ?

I also see that some CAs have root certificates of different "tiers", such as gold, silver, and platinum. What’s the deal with these? I imagine there are price differences associated with the different tiers, but what extra service could they be offering?

Using apache mina for ssh using signed ssh-rsa-cert-01 from Certification Authority

There is an existing client configured and running (SshClient) using apache mina to ssh to one of our internal jump boxes. It currently uses PEM based authentication. Due to compliance we have to switch to using internally signed certificates (internally we are using hashicorp vault as a CA). I’m unable to find any documentation regarding how to use signed certificates for ssh in apache mina to start with. Is it not supported? Will I perhaps have to use any other java ssh library?

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What is the benefit of public Certificate Authority when using SSL mutual authentication?

I was working the other day and I had a question come up, that I want to ask here to make sure my assumptions are correct.

In terms of SSL Mutual Authentication a self signed CA and a public CA provide the same functionality, is that assumption correct?

Besides the part that, supposedly, a public CA is stored much more securely than a private CA, the functionality part is the same, right? Meaning the client will be able to communicate with the server only if both of them have the certificates issued by the same CA and the server has access to the CA, right?

So in this situation, the man-in-the-middle attack is only possible of the attacker has access to the self-signed CA, correct?

And if all of the above assumptions are correct, what is the benefit of using a public CA for ssl mutual authentication? Is it only that it’s stored very securely or is there also something else?

Any help is greatly appreciated, thank you!

How to generate a CSR (certificate signing request) for creating a limited CA (Certificate Authority) with LibreSSL?

Related to this (too broad) question: How to implement my PKI?

I have a self-signed CA (ca0)

I would like to create a CA (ca1) with limited power derived from that first CA. ca1 should only be able to sign certificates for *.foo.com and for foo.com.

From this question, I found out that the Name Constraints extension is probably what I want.

The key for ca1 is already created and is ca1.foo.key.pem.

I already have an incomplete command for creating the request:

libressl req -new -sha512 -key ca1.foo.key.pem -out ca1.foo.csr.pem 

What should I add to that line to limit ca1’s power to what I want?

Best Web 2.0 by Domain Authority

Here is a recent ranking of Web 2.0 classified by Domain Authority:

99- Blogger.com   
94- Wix.com   
94- Fandom   
93- Weebly.com   
93- Tripod.lycos.com   
93- skyrock.com   
93- Over-blog.com   
93- Goodreads.com   
93- Academia.edu   
92- WordPress.com   
92- Livejournal.com   
92- Last.fm   
92- Kinja.com   
92- Flickr.com   
92- Evernote.com   
91- Yola.com   
91- Rediff.com   
91- Hubpages.com   
89- ucoz.com   
89- Soup.io   
89- Diigo.com   
88- Tumblr.com   
88- Simplesite.com   
88- Pen.io   
88- Myanimelist.net   
87- Webs.com   
83- Wikidot.com   
83- Shutterfly.com   
80- Dailystrength.org   
79- rhizome.org   
79- Fotki.com   
77- Smore.com   
77- Jimdo.com   
77- Bravenet.com   
75- Edublogs.org   
75- Blogsome.com   
74- Travelblog.org   
74- Couchsurfing.com   
73- https://www.squarespace.com/ Squarespace.com
68- Sitew.com   
68- hpage.com   
66- Areavoices.com   
58- Postach.io   
58- Cabanova.com   
54- inube.com   
50- Webnode.com   
48- Webstarts.com   
48- Ampblogs.com   
46- Devhub.com   
44- Websitebuilder.com   
34- own-free-website.com   
23- spruz.com   

Is a low Domain Authority bad for backlinks?

I know that a rating of “domain authority” is a bit subjective and different engines can have different parameters.

But let’s say I have a newly created website for my aunt. It is new and has NO authority whatsoever.

On a page like moz.com, it has the lame authority of 0.

Two questions:

  1. Is it bad to put a backlink on my aunt’s webpage pointing at my website: “Website designed by my beloved nephew example.com”? It could be just neutral, not good but not bad.

  2. But then it comes the second question, Imagine some backlinks from spammy websites can be attacking my website. Is there any way to find harmful websites with some kind of negative domain authority?

Related questions: Is page authority or domain authority more important for backlinks?

How to identify spammy domains giving backlinks to my site (to submit in disavow links in WMT) (but links on this answer are no longer active)

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