How does Automatic Seeding work – Always On Availability Group

I found only these two statements from BOL regarding this Initial Data Synchronization method:

Link 1

Automatic seeding uses the log stream transport to stream the backup using VDI to the secondary replica for each database of the availability group using the configured endpoints.

Link 2

During automatic seeding, SQL Server performs a backup over the network for initialization.

Looking into SQL Server Error logs of both primary and secondary replicas, these two logs caught my attention:

On primary replica

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On secondary replica

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My question is related to the working nature of automatic seeding, namely where does taken backup is stored before restoring on the secondary replica?

Numerically stable reverse automatic differentiation of power(x, y)?

I would like to compute the adjoints $ \bar x$ and $ \bar y$ , from a reverse automatic differentiation perspective, of the expression $ x^y$ . The adjoint $ \bar{x^y}$ is already known; and we can assume $ x \geq 0$ and $ y \geq 1$ .

The "easy" solution consists of rewriting the expression $ x^y=e^{y \ln x}$ , and proceed piece-wise from there. However, this solution proves to be unstable numerically, it gives:

$ $ \bar y = \bar{x^y} x^y \ln x$ $


$ $ \bar x = \bar{x^y} x^{y-1} y$ $

Is there any way to rewrite and/or approximate those expressions with something that is not going to numerically diverge when $ x \approx 0$ ?

What rule system handles fully automatic firearms the best?

I know it is a subjective matter, so let me specify a bit:

  • Full automatic fire encompasses all modern and future firearms with some form of recoil (lasers out of scope)
  • The attacker is sending multiple projectiles downrange. This includes 3 round burst, long burst, suppressive fire, etc
  • the focus is on infantry sized weapons. The combat dynamics of i.e. fighter jets is so much different it makes no sense to try to squeeze them in under the same set of rules

How I define good:

  • it encourages cooperation it the team. Covering fire, bounded overwatch, etc. are the primary tools of small unit tactics
  • it is reasonably elegant. Rolling a skill check for all the bullets in a 30 round burst is too complicated, but some extra rolls or bookkeeping is acceptable
  • it captures the key compromises an infantryman should consider (i.e. long burst makes no sense on a longer range, but devastating from up close), but not all the physical factors of muzzle rise, recoil, etc

Are lore rolls to detect magic automatic?

I know from reading the volume 1 rule book, that the presence of magic such as with trap-wards and ghosts (examples used as they are cited in the book), can be detected by a magic user rolling well on lore – however, I’m not sure on if the roll is supposed to be automatic or not? According to the rules of the system.

As in, if there is something like a magical trap set or a non-visible ghost present: by the rules, is the GM be supposed to automatically call for magic-users to roll lore to detect magic, or do the players have to decide themselves if they want to make a roll to check an area?

I’ve perhaps missed something somewhere in the book clarifying this.

Buying Automatic Successes In World of Darkness

Shadowrun 5e allows players to, with GM approval, buy Hits by trading dice on a 4:1 basis.

I was wondering if there were any published guidelines, or robust, well-thought-out house rules for doing this in World of Darkness (any product, oWoD or nWoD). I’ve read a lot of WoD books, and I’m not aware of any such guidance, so I’m reaching out to you guys.

The intent is to

  • Manage large dice pools
  • Potentially eliminate rolling for NPCs ala Numenera.

Edit / Clarification

WoD products sometimes have a terminology issue. Success could mean that a single die has rolled the requisite target number (e.g. 6), or it could mean that a given roll has generated enough Successes to exceed a required number of Successes, and therefore the roll itself can be declared a Success.

The rules for Automatic Success in the WoD books refer to automatically succeeding at a roll. Again we face the terminology issue, because elsewhere an automatic success can be defined as automatically receiving credit for one die having hit the target number, without having to roll that die. This rule is used in oWoD games where 1 temporary Willpower spent equals 1 automatic success, but doesn’t necessarily mean you have succeeded at the roll.

For clarity, I am looking for a way to trade dice for automatic successes as if I had spent 1 Willpower in oWoD.

My thoughts so far are that I might say that 3 dice equals 1 automatic success, because in nWoD 1 Willpower buys you 3 dice. It may be important to note that I am not using moving target numbers, all target numbers on all rolls are the same number.

how can I handle automatic rifles in my rules?

Due to the current situation me and my group decided to try something new for our first online-session. We agreed on a post-apocalyptic, post-modern setting in a Metro2033-style. This presents me with a few new challanges. While I can bend most of our current rules to work semi-normal in a modern adventure, a big problem are automatic weapons.

I already have something in mind for semi-automatic guns or rifles with single- or burst-fire mode, but I haven’t found nothing for full-auto or tap-fire weapons. I discussed the issue with my players already, but we haven’t found a solution everyone is happy with.

Our requirements to an “Automatic-Weapon-System” are:

  • It must be easy to execute, which means it should take as few dice rolls as possible with little to no calculations. So the game doesn’t have to pause for a few minutes to calculate the results each time our machine-gunner fires blindly into the crowd.
  • It needs to be properly balanced. Machine guns are supposed to be lethal, but need a as hard drawback.
  • It must work for both single and multiple targets (I’ll come back to that later)
  • It should be random. Now this point contratdicts with my first point, but a few players – and I myself – would like to have ‘spraying’ be as unpredictable as possible. Now the hard part is make something hard to predict, but easy to calculate.

Now I’d like to keep this question as nonspecific as possible, so any answer is suitable for many others but me. Nevertheless, I should probably mention our homebrewed combat system I’d like to use:

We use an “Action-Point Table” (which is actually an old score-counter board from carcasonne). Each Action costs Actions-Points. Each time you use Action Points your maker on the board moves up. It is always the turn of the player with the lowest number. (So if Player1 is on square 4 and Player2 is on Square 7, it’s Player1s turn. He spends 4 Action Points on moving, now he has 8 and P2 has 7 … and so on).

Feel free to ignore this system, if you have a great idea without using it. I just think it might create some room for imagination (also I’d like to build on it, since I’ve written it^^).

Here are a few things we thought about, but didn’t quite like or finish:

  • You roll x times to decide you accuracy, then draw a cone on the map based on it and split the damage to all targets in the cone. Each target gets damage based on (ammount of bullets/squares within the cone next to it). => hard to draw a cone, not random
  • Each weapon has a ‘spray pattern’. You pick a target and then roll once for your accuracy. Based on a ‘recoil table’ you determin how many bullets hit your target, if there is another target within the ‘spray pattern’, you roll again for the remaining bullets. => didn’t really sound fun
  • You fire x bullets per action point (based on weapon), you roll once to determine how many bullets hit then for each hit once to determine whom it hit => sounds like a lot of rolling
  • You pick a target, the game-master can give a hidden modifier for anyone close nearby. You roll for each bullet fired, then reveal the hidden modifier, to see if any missed bullet has hit one of the bystanders => lot of rolling, calculation and I’d like to avoid making things too dependent on the GM
  • The player picks a group he wants to target, then rolls x dice based on bullets fired at once. There is an open modifier based on how large/tight the group is. Damage is split among the group. => not really random, basically a lame AOE.

Oh yea, and not to forget, I also need meaningfull differences between burst fire (a built-in burst mode to fire a fixed amount a bullets each time you pull the trigger), tap-fire (shortly press the trigger for bursts of a few bullets) and spray (pull the trigger as hard as you can)

I also already have looked up some post-apocalyptic RPGs, but none of them seems to have a very fun approach to automatic weapons. If you know one with a fun rule you can cite, I’d be more than happy.

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