Keyboard and mouse basics

Keyboard and mouse basics
This article is about the introduction of the keyboard mouse PC item.
Using a keyboard
Whenever you use a desktop computer or laptop, you’ll probably use a computer keyboard. The most common kind is called a ‘QWERTY’ keyboard. QWERTY describes the top row of letters on the keyboard.
What a keyboard looks like
A keyboard is for putting information including letters, words and numbers into your computer. You press the individual buttons on the keyboard when you type.
The number keys across the top of the keyboard are also found on the right of the keyboard.
The letter keys are in the centre of the keyboard.
The symbol keys to the right of the letters include symbols such as the question mark and full stop.
The keys that surround the letters, numbers and symbol keys on the left, right and bottom of the keyboard help you to choose where and how you type.
There are several types of keyboards, such as gaming mechanical keyboard, keyboard and so on.
Using the keys
When you open a document or click in a box to type, you will see a vertical flashing line. This is the cursor, it shows you where you are about to start typing on a page or screen.
Pressing the ‘shift’ key allows you to type capital letters and the symbols at the top of the keys.
The ‘shift’ keys are on the left and right of the keyboard, with the arrow pointing upwards.
For capital letters, hold down the ‘shift’ key and hold and type the letter.
For symbols at the top of a number key, press down the symbol key and then type the symbol. You can use the ‘shift’ key to type any symbol at the top of a key.
The ‘caps lock’ key allows you to write in capital letters. To turn it on, press it once and type. To turn it off, press it again.
Putting in spaces, moving your cursor and deleting text
The ‘space bar’ puts a space between words. Press it once to put in a space.
The ‘tab’ key puts a bigger space between words. Press it once to put in a space.
The ‘enter’ key moves your cursor down a line.
The ‘arrow’ keys allow you to move your cursor in all directions on the page or screen – up, down, left and right.
To delete your typing you need to put your cursor to the right of a word. Press the ‘backspace’ button to delete your word. The cursor will move to the left and delete as it goes.
Using a mouse
There are lots of different styles of computer mouse, but most have a left and a right button.
To hold your mouse, rest your hand over it and put your index finger on the left button and your thumb resting on the side. The cable needs to be pointing towards the computer. The mouse needs to always be in contact with a mouse mat, desk or hard surface.
You use your mouse to move the cursor around the screen. The cursor changes, depending on what you are doing on the computer. As an arrow you use it for moving and selecting things, as a hand for clicking on links when you are on the internet and it becomes an hourglass when you are waiting for the computer to do something.
Single clicking
You single click with the left mouse button to select things. Just quickly left click and then let go of the button.
Double clicking
You double click with the left mouse button to open things, such as a folder. You need to double click quickly, think about the ‘knock, knock’ you do on a door.
Drag and drop
Drag and drop is when you move something from one place to another. 
First select the item with the left mouse button and keep the button pressed down. Then move the mouse and the item on screen will move with the cursor. When you have the cursor and item in the position you want, release the left mouse button.
The item will now be dropped to where the cursor is positioned on the screen.
You use drag and drop to move things around your computer, such as files between folders.
Right button
If you ever accidently click the right mouse button, a list of computer commands will appear. To remove the list just move the mouse and single click the left button.
Laptop trackpad or touchpad
Laptops can have a built in mouse within the keyboard. This is operated by finger touch. This specialised surface is used instead of a mouse and needs only very short finger movements to move the cursor across the display screen.
Improve your computer skills
Why not develop your computer skills – there are courses for beginners and beyond. These range from free online learning through to training, which can lead to qualifications.
While the gaming keyboard mouse industry has almost completed its quest for true gaming perfection, many of today’s gamers still find themselves asking that age-old question – should I choose a wired or wireless gaming mouse?
It’s a question that has plagued many over the last couple of decades, with consumers struggling to decide whether or not the benefits of wireless technology actually outweigh the reduction in gaming performance they sadly lose.
That being said, thanks to huge leaps forward in technology, the gap between wired vs wireless gaming mice has now become much less apparent. Today’s mice come equipped with new technologies that offer Lightspeed connectivity and an almost unlimited amount of battery life – making wireless gaming mice more popular than ever before. Furthermore, wireless mice now bring fantastic gaming performance to the table that really does give their wired alternatives a run for their money.
With the current batch of high-performance gaming mice giving consumers the ultimate headache when deciding which one to choose, we thought we’d whip this article together explaining the differences between wired and wireless gaming mice. We’ll be looking at the main specifications that affect gaming performance, the main differences between the two technologies, and whether or not you should choose wired or wireless for your next gaming mouse purchase.
So, with that in mind, let’s waste no further time and dive straight into it
If you’re shopping for a gaming headset, you have a lot of options. While there are some great ones out there, it’s easy to pay too much, to accidentally purchase a headset that doesn’t work with your desired console or platform, or to get one that’s just uncomfortable. Knowing a thing or two about headphones might aid in your search, but gaming headsets have only gotten more complicated to shop for — especially the wireless ones.

For instance, wireless headsets made for Xbox operate without a dongle via Microsoft’s proprietary wireless protocol. They’ll only work on Xbox consoles or a PC that has one of Microsoft’s Xbox Wireless Adapters plugged in, in most cases. Conversely, if you get a multiplatform wireless headset that includes a 2.4GHz wireless dongle, it’ll likely work on the likes of the PS4, PS5, Nintendo Switch (when plugged into the console’s TV dock), and PC — but not Xbox. It’s best to buy the headset that mentions support for your preferred platform(s) explicitly, or else there’s a good chance you’ll run into some compatibility issues. Of course, you can eliminate most of the guesswork by buying a wired gaming headset instead.

This guide focuses on newer options that you’re more likely to encounter at stores as opposed to older models that, while possibly still being worthy of your money, are often tougher to find affordably and easily online. Also, just to mention it at the top, I have a large-ish head and that factor obviously played a major role in how I judge the comfort of these headsets.

You’ll find a few categories below, including the best multiplatform wireless headsets that are compatible with PC, PS4, PS5, and Nintendo Switch via its dock, the best Xbox wireless gaming headsets, the best PlayStation wireless gaming headsets, and the best wired gaming headsets that support the widest variety of platforms, from console controllers to phones, tablets, and VR headsets that feature a 3.5mm headphone jack.
If you have ever found yourself searching for a new pair of headsets, you have encountered the overwhelming variety of choice that you are nowadays faced with. Over-the-ear, on-the-ear, noise-cancelling, wireless, wired… the market seems to be oversaturated with terms, that needs further clarification.

So, how to choose the best headset?

To start with, there is no such thing as the best headset. Rather, it all depends on your usage and needs. How much time you spend on the phone, what kind of job you do, whether you work in an open office or what type of phone you’re using – all of these factors will influence your choice.

But let’s take one step at a time and focus on how to choose between wired and wireless headsets in the first place. For that purpose, we will need to look at different work styles, as they play a key role in your choice between wired and wireless headsets.

If you spend most of your time at your desk, you are probably what is generally defined as desk worker. You are often on calls with customers, colleagues or other stakeholders. You probably use desk phones most, but Microsoft Teams or Skype for Business are also part of your daily routine. For you, clear audio has the utmost importance – there is no place for questions like “What? Could you repeat, please?”. Perceiving the slightest change in the tone of voice of your caller can make a great difference in your job. You don’t want to worry about your equipment – it should work easily and instantly, allowing you to simply focus on the call and the customer.

If you find this description to be an accurate representation of your workstyle and needs, you will then be satisfied with wired headset.
Wired headsets often offer a higher definition audio quality than wireless headsets, while also minimizing the risk of interferences that can happen with wireless signals. This guarantees perfectly clear audio. At the same time, being plug-and-play, wired headsets can be put in use in no time – avoiding wasting precious seconds in setting up and connecting your device.

But what if you would consider yourself a road warrior instead? You spend most of your time on-the-go – in your car, on public transport – running around to different meetings in the city. Being able to make use of the time you have in between meetings is of extreme importance to you. That is why you need a device that enables you to easily take calls from both, your PC and mobile, in the office and on-the-road. You need to be able to move quickly between working situations, while still hearing and being heard clearly.
Or maybe you’re a corridor worker. You spend most of your time working in the office, both at your desk and in meetings. You walk a lot around the office building, and you need a device that allows you to talk while freely roaming office corridors.
In both cases, a wireless headset would be more suitable for you.

Office headset give you the freedom to move as you like, walking or even running around without the risk of getting tangled in any cords – and still being able to hear and be heard perfectly. And with most devices nowadays being Bluetooth-enabled, you will be able to easily connect your wireless headset to both, your mobile and PC.

The Basics of Tie-Down Straps

A tie down strap is a length of webbing that is tensioned and used to secure cargo or equipment for transportation. They are available in lengths ranging from around six feet for small loads to 40 feet for commercial trucking applications and typically range from one inch to four inches wide. Tie-down straps come with two ratings to indicate overall strength; break strength describes the maximum comfortable weight that can be supported before the strap fails, and working load describes the maximum weight that a tie-down can support with regular day-to-day use without becoming damaged. The working load is generally calculated as one-third of the break strength.
Towing Ropes
Towing ropes feature an easy-to-use gator clip, and are generally the lightest-duty tie-down strap with a maximum of 100-lb working load and 220-lb break strength. They are designed for use on cargo carriers, game carts, and other small loads.
Cam Buckle Straps
Cam Buckle Straps are generally lighter-duty than ratchet straps but heavier-duty than lashing straps. They are designed for use with medium-sized loads such as dirt bikes and ATVs, and can have up to a 500-lb working load and 1,500-lb breaking strength. They are easy and quicker to tighten and release than a ratchet strap, but cannot safely secure as much weight.
Ratchet Straps
Ratchet tie down straps are named for their method of locking and securing the strap via an easy-to-use ratcheting system. Ratchet straps can have a working load limit up to 5,000 lbs. with a 15,000-lb break strength rating and can create a tighter and more secure restraint – ideal for solid, heavy loads. 
Bungee Cords, also known as shock cords, are better suited to light-duty applications such as hanging a tarp or tying up small items for storage.
If you’re like us, you’re probably using your garage for anything but a place to park your ride. And that’s because it’s become a warehouse for all of the stuff you can’t find room for in or around your home, like toys, cleaning supplies, gardening equipment, and tools. Getting the space clean and orderly has probably been on your to-do list for ages, which is why we searched far and wide for the best garage storage ideas. Whether you’re looking to give the area a whole top-to-bottom makeover, or just want a convenient, tidy method to sock away your family’s bikes, we have what you need.

One of the best ways to organize your garage is by grouping gear of the same kind together so it’s easy to find. Using a combination of shelves and storage hooks, this gardening equipment is stored neatly side-by-side, with a large, labeled bin for holding smaller items.
Kick clutter to the curb with a sturdy slat wall hooks and panel that uses baskets, and more to hold necessities like cleaning and gardening supplies.
For a indoor place to hang your go-to jacket or everyday bag, consider a wall-mounted coat rack or hooks. We have plenty of recommendations in our guides to coat hooks, which are sturdy, take little space, and add a pop of style. 

The Basics of Cutting and Grinding discs

Abrasive-cutting processes are widely used to obtain semi-finished products from metal bars, slabs, or tubes. Thus, the abrasive cutting-off process is applied when requiring precision cutting and productivity at a moderate price. Cut-off tools are discs composed of small abrasive particles embedded in a bonding material, called the binder. This work aims to compare the cutting performance of cutting discs with different composition, in dry cutting of steel bars. To do that, disc wear was measured and disc final topography was digitalized in order to determine both disc surface wear patterns and if the abrasive particles bonding into the binder matrix was affected. In addition, X-Ray inspection gave information about the abrasive grit-binder bonding. Therefore, the method here presented allows identifying discs with a superior abrasive-cutting capability, by combining profilometry and tomography to define micrometrical aspects, grit size, and binder matrix structure. Results led to the conclusion that discs with high grit size and protrusion, high grit retention by bond material, and closer mesh of fiberglass matrix binder were the optimal solution.
[font=”IBM Plex Sans”, sans-serif]Plenty of manual cutting applications call for a hand-held grinder and cutting wheel. Cutting sheet metal, sizing a piece for fabrication, cutting out a weld to refabricate it, and cutting and notching in pipeline work are just a few examples of what can be accomplished using a grinder and cutting wheel.[/font]
[font=”IBM Plex Sans”, sans-serif]Resinoid-bonded cutting wheels are a popular choice to achieve these types of cuts because they offer portability and allow you to cut in many different angles and orientations. The bonding agent, in this case resinoid, holds the wheel together so it can cut effectively. The bond wears away as the abrasive grains wear and are expelled so new sharp grains are exposed.[/font]
[font=”IBM Plex Sans”, sans-serif]By following a few best practices, you can extend wheel life, promote safety, and improve productivity and efficiency within the process.[/font]
[font=”IBM Plex Sans”, sans-serif]The Basics of Cutting Wheels[/font]
[font=”IBM Plex Sans”, sans-serif]The main considerations in using resinoid-bonded wheels include the cutting application, the tool being used—such as a right-angle grinder, die grinder, or chop saw—desired cutting action, the material being cut, and space. Wheels typically provide a fast cutting action, long life, and tend to be cost-effective.[/font]
[font=”IBM Plex Sans”, sans-serif]The two main types of resinoid-bonded abrasive cutting wheels are Type 1, which are flat, and Type 27, which have a raised hub. Type 1 wheels generally are used for straight-on cutting on electric or pneumatic right-angle grinders or die grinders and chop saws, among other tools. Type 27 wheels are required when there is some type of interference and the metal cutting disc needs to be raised up from the base of the grinder, but personal preference also plays a role in the decision. They are most commonly used with electric or pneumatic right-angle grinders.[/font]
[font=”IBM Plex Sans”, sans-serif]Resinoid-bonded abrasive cutting wheels are available in various sizes and thicknesses. The most popular range is 2 to 16 inches in diameter, and common thicknesses are from 0.045 in. to 1⁄8 in. Thinner wheels remove less material during the cut.[/font]
[font=”IBM Plex Sans”, sans-serif]Some types of wheels cut faster than others. The abrasive material used in the wheel is one influencer on cut rate and consumable life. Wheels come in several grain options, such as aluminum oxide, silicon carbide, zirconia alumina, ceramic alumina, and combinations of these materials.[/font]
[font=”IBM Plex Sans”, sans-serif]While not as sharp as other grains, aluminum oxide provides toughness and good performance for cutting on steel. Silicon carbide, on the other hand, is a very sharp grain but not quite as tough, making it suitable for cutting nonferrous metals. Zirconia alumina is a self-sharpening, tough, durable grain that holds up well in a range of demanding applications. Ceramic alumina also is designed to self-sharpen as it “breaks” at predetermined points to maintain a consistent cut rate and long life.[/font]
[font=”IBM Plex Sans”, sans-serif]When selecting a resinoid-bonded abrasive wheel, consider that products made with a mixture of zirconia or ceramic alumina with a harder bond typically cost more but offer durability and longer consumable life.[/font]
[font=”IBM Plex Sans”, sans-serif]Make sure to refer to the manufacturer’s recommendations, product descriptions, and RPM ratings to select the proper wheel size and bonded abrasive material for your application. Matching the size and RPM rating of the tool to the size and RPM rating of the wheel is critical for safe and effective usage. Choosing the tool with the greatest amperage or amount of torque while staying within size and RPM requirements of the wheel will increase performance.[/font]
[font=”IBM Plex Sans”, sans-serif]The kind of tool and the tool guard that you use also are factors that play a role in the type of wheel that can be used for an application. A larger-diameter wheel works best if you’re cutting deep into metal or need to cut a piece with a large diameter, for example, because it eliminates the need to rock the wheel back and forth during the cutting process. Look for a wheel with the diameter designed for the size and thickness of material being cut.[/font]
[font=”IBM Plex Sans”, sans-serif]Thin wheels, such as aluminum cutting disc, on the other hand, tend to remove less metal during the cut and have shorter life spans, but provide a quicker cut. There are some exceptions to this as different versions of thin wheels are lasting longer, so be sure to do your research before you make a final decision to ensure the wheel you select maximizes efficiency.[/font]
[font=”IBM Plex Sans”, sans-serif]Specialty cutting wheels are also available that are designed for use with certain materials, such as stainless steel and aluminum.[/font]
[font=”IBM Plex Sans”, sans-serif]Proper Positioning and Other Tips[/font]
[font=”IBM Plex Sans”, sans-serif]In addition to paying attention to designations for RPM rating, size, and material, you should also follow these tips when using resinoid-bonded abrasive cutting wheels.[/font]

  • Use the cutting wheel at a 90-degree angle, perpendicular to the work surface.
  • Apply the proper amount of pressure—not too much, not too little—to allow the cutting wheel to do the work. Always avoid pushing too hard on the wheel, which can cause the grinder to stall or kick back or give you a much less efficient cutting action. It also increases the chances that you will slip or lose control of the tool, which can cause damage or injury.
  • Choose a grinder with the highest torque or amperage available for the application, as this will help the wheel to do more of the work. For example, instead of using a 4.5-in. Grinder cutting wheel on a 6-amp grinder, use a 4.5-in. wheel on a 10-amp grinder. The RPM rating remains the same, but the tool will provide more torque to cut into the metal.
  • Choose a tool and consumables that offer quick, consistent cutting, which typically provides the most efficient performance.
  • Remember, the thinner the cutting wheel, the more susceptible it can be to side loading, which is a term that describes when the wheel bends while moving side to side in the cut. This can turn dangerous if you lean too hard on a wheel, which can cause the wheel to break or jam in the cut. It can also reduce the efficiency of the wheel and increase the cut time.
  • Store the wheel in a clean, dry environment, and avoid placing it in water or mud. This helps minimize environmental effects that could degrade its performance or cause it to crack or wear prematurely. The performance of resinoid bond tends to deteriorate when the wheel is stored for extended periods of time, so be sure to use FIFO (first in, first out) when using wheels.
  • Inspect the wheel and consumable before each use to check for signs of damage or wear. Cutting wheels, including angle grinder cutting discs can become harder to control as they wear down. If you can no longer make a safe cut because the wheel’s diameter is worn so thin, then the best course of action is to replace it.

[font=NexusSerif, Georgia, “Times New Roman”, Times, STIXGeneral, “Cambria Math”, “Lucida Sans Unicode”, “Microsoft Sans Serif”, “Segoe UI Symbol”, “Arial Unicode MS”, serif]A grinding disc is defined by the type of abrasive material, bonding material, grain size, structure of the wheel, and grade of the wheel used for the machining of a component. These factors decide the grinding efficiency of the grinding wheel and surface finish quality of the machined component. A wide range of abrasives are being used in modern era to overcome necessities in machining of various make of components. Abrasives ranging from the economic verses of aluminium oxide to the likes of super-abrasives such as cubic boron nitride and the expensive diamond grains are used for machining as well as surfacing purposes. Over the years, research has depicted that no distinct abrasive material can meet all the requirements of grinding applications. The mechanical and physical properties of a particular abrasive material make it suitable for a certain application.[/font]

Wire Brushes

[font=”Open Sans”, sans-serif]A wheel wire brush is an abrasive tool that has stiff bristles made from a variety of rigid materials designed to clean and prepare metal surfaces. The filaments of wire brushes are small diameter pieces of inflexible material that are closely spaced together as a means for cleaning surfaces that require aggressive and abrasive tools. The means of applying the brush can be either manual or mechanical depending on the type of brush and the surface to be treated.[/font]
[font=”Open Sans”, sans-serif]The short video below explains the manufacturing of a unique type of wire brush called a wire drawn brush, which is a very sturdy and durable brush that is made by a process that ensures filament retention.[/font]

HTTP Request Smuggling Basics

I am currently trying to learn HTTP Request Smuggling vulnerability to furthermore enhance my pen testing skill. I have watched a couple of videos on Youtube and read articles online regarding it but still have a couple of questions in mind. Question:

  • What are the attack vectors of HTTP Req Smuggling (Where should I look)?
  • What is the main way to provide PoC to companies with high traffic? I know that HTTP Smuggling could possibly steal people’s cookie, can this be used for the PoC or is this illegal?
  • Can this or other vulnerability be chained together? (e.g. self-xss & csrf)

Thank you everyone!

implementing an authentication mechanism for understanding the basics of client authetication

I’m trying to implement a simple protocol to authenticate users and authorize them to access a certain web page/resource via a login form.

Please note that this is just something to use on my own and that it’s just to get the basic idea of how such systems work.

My idea is to store the hash of a shared secret between Server and client on the server side and then use a challenge-response mechanism to authenticate the user. The user would type an username and the server will respond with a challenge that implies the use of the shared secret to get access to the resource. For example, hashing the password and the challenge together and sending it back to the server. The server would do the same with the user’s stored password and check if both values are the same.

However, how can this authenticate a user A to a server B if, let’s say user C can intercept A’s response to the server and send it to the server as if it was C? Then the server would authorize C to the resource A was supposed to gain access to.

Isn’t this the way protocols such as CHAP or EAP work? (in an over-simplified way). I think I have a bit of a mess in my head, but the only solution I can think of to prevent a MiTM attack is to use TLS/SSL. But how do websites authenticate users nowadays without TLS? Also, OpenID seems to me equally vulnerable to man in the middle attacks, but it must be something I don’t understand or I’m missing.

What are the basics of CS i should know,before I start my journey into machine learning

I am myself a non-cs graduate and would love to be a machine learning engineer.

I have learned to code and know the basics of Machine learning as well. Now I would like to know what “basics of CS” I should learn to be completely job ready.

I sometimes have difficulties reading CS documentations and don’t know how programs and computers work in background, I am also naiver on topics like memory management, operating systems, networking, electronics stuff like microprocessor, compiler design etc. Are these all necessary for my transition to AI? If they are, would you please recommend me a short learning path or books or videos. I hope I wouldn’t need to go deep in these areas. Thanks

Are the security basics of a non-wifi router different from securing your desktop?

I have studied much about securing a desktop from enabling firewall to browsing internet safely among other things. I also know that many steps can be taken to improve the security of wifi routers. But if I am using a non-wifi router or a usb dongle with wifi turned off, are there any steps I can take to secure that router? Or is a non-wifi router secure?

I have read about web cams that are vulnerable and can be hacked so what about routers? Can you give me an introduction? How can I find out if my router has any vulnerabilities?

I am getting a message that this question appears subjective so I will tell you that basically what I am asking is: how does router security work?

What are the basics of the Nobilis 2e system’s mechanics, in a nutshell?

Some months ago, I was shown the Nobilis 2e book. I tried to gain a basic acquaintance with the principles of its system, but was soon swamped: it seemed like any explanations encountered in the book always went for big chunks covering every small detail, as opposed to a fractal approach where the long-winded description is preceded by a bird’s eye view that only provides the key points first.

What are those basics, from a bird’s eye view? How does the diceless point-spending resolution of actions work in general? What are the basic attributes (or however else the traits are called in this system)? Are there wholly separate mechanics for resolving miracle-magic and ‘merely’ superhuman competence?

Note: I’m acquainted with flexible/improvisational/freeform approaches to magic from other settings and systems (Mage the Ascension Spheres, Thaumatology Realm Magic etc.), so that part isn’t a concept I have trouble grasping; this is predominately a mechanics question.

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