How does a Chivalry & Sorcery battle actually get resolved?

Years ago I purchased the Chivalry & Sorcery Sourcebook (2nd Edition) for its Battle System, but there’s one basic thing I’ve never been able to figure out. On p 65 of the book, it has the procedure for dealing with melee combat, which is:

  1. Determine how many figures in each unit are engaged
  2. Roll a d6 for each unit
  3. Modify the dice rolled with the included table

…then, nothing. It never says what to do with the result. Does anyone have any idea? The best I can figure, you’re supposed to remove as many figures as the final value says, but I can’t decide if that’s a reasonable result. Thoughts, anyone?

losing constitution scores in battle; does it bring down my hp and how?

So, I run an artificer in my one campaign that just reached lv 20. Part of the lv. 20 ability (Soul of Artifice) reads:

If you’re reduced to 0 hit points but not killed out-right, you can use your reaction to end one of your artificer infusions, causing you to drop to 1 hit point instead of 0.

My artificer is using one of his infusions to replicate the amulet of health magic item which requires attunement and reads

Your Constitution score is 19 while you wear this amulet

If my character is about to be knocked down to 0 hp, and then uses his reaction to end his infusion that created the amulet, what happens?

This post is Related but I feel is still different since in this case I need to know if he would just instantly drop to 0 hp for trying to unattune to it, or if it would keep him up and still at 1 hp, just with a lowered maximum hp.

Is there any way for a Battle Smith Artificer to have two Steel Defenders?

In the new release of Eberron, the Steel Defender is the Battle Smith version of the Eldritch Cannon. From how I am reading the rules for the Cannon from lvl3 you can have multiple cannons, one each day from the long rest and any additional by spending spell slots (even though they are only allowed to command one at a time until lvl15 with the Fortified Position). I was under the assumption that the same rule applies to the Battle Smith for Steel Defenders. That you get one free one a day after a long rest and then you can make another with a spell slot (but can only control one at a time in combat with your bonus action since there’s nothing like Fortified Position for the Battle Smith). Am I correct in this or can a Battle Smith only have one Steel Defender at a time?

Frequency of cantrips outside of battle

Despite being “at will”, how often can a cantrip be cast outside of battle? For example, how long must a player wait before shooting 2 fire bolts, and is there a limit to how many could be cast or can they just go at it continuously for a day without incurring penalties?

Some Background

I have recently started DM’ing and there’s a few concepts that still elude me, or at least I am finding some trouble reconciling my interpretation of the rules and practical balance.

As I understand it, cantrips can be cast “at-will”. That’s fine inside of battle, but outside of it, things begin to get extremely broken. I have a player whose solution to most challenges is to “fire bolt it”. Is there a reinforced door? A stone wall? A shielded altar? He will just fire bolt it for 8 consecutive hours… Now, on most occasions I have been able to come up with counter-measures, like, bouncing the fire bolts back at him when they hit the altar’s shield, but still, it sounds ridiculous to me that you could just cast continuously for 2/3 of a day if you wished it so, without incurring any penalties… it’s simply absurd on so many levels! And yes, I know you technically could say “I hit it with my club for 8 hours”, and it would be just as ridiculous in my mind that there would be no fatigue, no weapon deterioration, etc…

I have told my player he can cast once every 6 seconds (since that’s the duration of a turn in battle), but I have no idea if that is correct, and it still feels unbalanced.

How do I maximize my turns for damage with this Battle Smith melee character?

What would be the correct sequence of actions on 1st turn, and following turns for an Battle Smith Artificer to Maximize damage?

They are a 3rd level variant human (Dual Wielder feat) with a Strength and Intelligence modifier of +3. We are using the 2019-2 version of the Artificer.

They are armed with

  • 2 Yklwa 1d8 (with throwing property) using TWF

    • One being infused with Enchant Weapon +1,
    • and the second with Returning Weapon +1 (no action on return).

They could cast either

  • Arcane weapon 1d6 (variable) or
  • Searing Smite 1d6 (fire)

And they have the ability to command their Iron Defender as a Bonus Action to attack with a 1d8 + 2 damage attack, or take the help action.

What are the ramifications of making the Battle Master fighter’s Commander’s Strike maneuver no longer require the Attack action?

The Battle Master fighter’s Commander’s Strike maneuver (PHB, p. 74) states:

When you take the Attack action on your turn, you can forgo one of your attacks and use a bonus action to direct one of your companions to strike. When you do so, choose a friendly creature who can see or hear you and expend one superiority die. That creature can immediately use its reaction to make one weapon attack, adding the superiority die to the attack’s damage roll.

However it is currently the only maneuver that actually requires you to take the Attack action. I found this odd, and the rare times that this fact came up, I simply ignored it, allowing it to be used with any sort of attack. I have thus made the following changes as a house rule:

When you make an attack on your turn, you can forgo the attack and use a bonus action to direct one of your companions to strike […]

It would still be limited to one use per turn, as you only have one bonus action on any given turn, but perhaps there is some issue that results from this which I haven’t noticed. What are the ramifications of this change?

How does the Battle Master Fighter’s Sweeping Attack Maneuver work if you would have (dis)advantage only against the first target?

The Battle Master Fighter can choose the Sweeping Attack Maneuver which states:

When you hit a creature with a melee weapon attack, you can expend one superiority die to attempt to damage another creature with the same attack. Choose another creature within 5 feet of the original target and within your reach. If the original attack roll would hit the second creature, it takes damage equal to the number you roll on your superiority die […]

So what happens if the Fighter has (dis)advantage on the attack against the first enemy but ordinarily wouldn’t have (dis)advantage with an attack made against the second enemy, or vice-versa? Does this simply get ignored because you have to use “the original attack roll”?

An example of how this could happen:
Your first target is invisible, giving you disadvantage, but the second target is visible; ordinarily an attack against them would not have disadvantage.
For the opposite direction, attack the visible creature first.

Artificer battle smith wants to make magical armor, we’re trying to figure out the borders

We’re using the 2019 UA Artificer (from the DND Beyond site).

Situation

I am the DM. The PC is level 3 (getting to level 4 pretty soon) and he wants to start going into crafting magical armors because he feels its part of his class identity.

Now, I understand its generally up to me to decide what is suitable and what is not, but we try to figure a balanced way to handle this, in which he can have creative ideas and magic items still feel wondrous.

The examples I gave him, from what I understood from the PHB and DMG books, is that he either finds a formula, or creates one.
I mostly understand the other parts, we are discussing the creation of a formula. We’re trying to understand the basics and go up from there for our understanding’s sake with creating a common magic item.

We’re trying to be as true to the “original” world of D&D as we’re both pretty new and he really likes trying to “outfigure” the system; not by cheating it, but by thinking of clever ways in which to use it.
He offered two examples:

  1. One is trying to infuse a piece of armor with Heroism spell, in a way that once a day a humanoid who wears it and expresses bravery (judged by the piece itself) it gives it 1d4 temporary hit points, or something like that.
    Which sounded cool and okay with me.

  2. The second example was infusing a pair of boots (Leather worker’s tool?) with Expeditious Retreat. Which sounded really bad with me. He couldn’t describe how it will do it, just that its infused with the magic and is “cast” the same way normal Expeditious Retreat is cast, which just says “This spell allows you to move at an incredible pace.” He said he wants the boots to have the spell active at all times, and I figured it would make it a rare or very rare item? (which he can’t create).

We’re trying to go for a as “realistic” to the world approach as we can. How would you approach this?

When two weapon fighting, can a battle master use a manoeuver on the attack action and another on the bonus action attack?

The rules state that “you can use only one manoeuvre per attack” (PHB 73), but i’m unsure how that applies in the case of two weapon fighting.

Is striking an opponent with your bonus action considered a separate attack, or part of the original attack?