Has anyone tested the effect of allowing cantrips to be repeatedly cast between battles?

Short Version: Some characters have cantrips (or unlimited-used abilities) that they would like to have in combat, like Shillelagh. Has anyone tested or experienced methods of allowing these to be ready in advance?

Long Version: I have a player who wants to build an Arcana Cleric who uses Shillelagh, a non-concentration cantrip with a 1-minute duration, for melee combat. She would like to have it ready when combat begins for action economy (to do such other things as casting Spiritual Weapon on the first turn). She figures she can simply cast it continuously while walking around between fights.

I was considering allowing this, with a few caveats. My thoughts were:

  • Constantly casting a cantrip will give Disadvantage to be aware of surroundings, giving a -5 to Passive Perception/Investigation.
  • Since it has a Verbal component, she will be constantly emitting noise, possibly giving enemies some advance warning of the party’s approach.
  • Originally I was going to have her roll a d10 at the start of any battle to see how much time was left on the 1-minute cantrip (since it’s conveniently 10 rounds of duration), but technically she could recast it every 6 seconds to restart the timer, RAW, rather than waiting until it expired.

There are other potential factors, such as aggravating any NPCs that travel with them (imagine someone repeating the same 6 seconds of magic words over and over. ALL. DAY. LONG.), and not being able to renew it while her focus was required elsewhere (like solving a tricky puzzle, or while hiding, or while having a conversation).

Here are my questions:

  • Are there any other factors that need to be weighed, mechanically-speaking?
  • Is there any problem with my interpretation of the ability to recast it every 6 seconds?
  • Has anyone used or witnessed their own method of handling a PC constantly re-using a similar spell or ability?

Rules for DM’ing large scale battles [duplicate]

I am working on a campaign and there is a very good chance that the PC’s may find themselves involved in a large mass battle, a large siege or possibly both if things go slightly sideways in regards to there actions and success through the campaign (of course they may just as equally decide to get out of dodge if it all goes sideways but that is the joy of running a free from open campaign).

I have experience of a system for large battles from 1st edition legend of the 5 rings, a combination of the players attempting to complete heroic actions to sway the battle, combined with dice rolling the skill of the generals behind the scenes to gauge the flow of the battle. Are there any official published 5th edition rules or suggestions as to how to run these kind of large scale battles for D&D?

Turning VTM battles more dynamic

I’m playing a VTM 20th edition campaign with my friends, and they are really liking it, the only thing that is not great is the combat.

Sometimes the group battle just one or two enemies, and it’s fine, but now they are at war with the Sabbath, and the Camarilla is helping then in some battles, but then the combat turns into something like 10 versus 5, and then it gets a little boring, for me, because I’m controlling all the characters and for then, because they need to wait 10 actions to do something.

I know that one solution would be to just reduce the size of the battles, but battles of this size are really great for my storytelling at the moment, is there anything else I can do?

How to make air/sea/space battles between ships fun?

My PCs are on board a ship/craft in a game of Rogue Trader I am GMing, and soon will need to defend an area (“You shall not pass” style) against other ship/craft.

I have recently read the The Angry DM series about combat.
But so far I don’t find air/sea/space battles fun, and don’t see how to apply that advice in my case…

The turn decisions are quite low, and player actions every turn boil down to:

  1. Pilot/sail the ship/craft
  2. Support the ship/craft
  3. Shoot

It feels repetitive and more like throwing dice than really fighting after some turn.

How can I improve it to make it fun and compeling?

The other parameters are:

  • It is only battleship against battleship, spacecraft against spacecraft,…
  • The map is usually quite empty with sometimes area of low visibility (obstacles and cover not often)
  • PCs are leading officers on the same ship/craft
  • I am not yet good about describing actions/interaction between crafts/ships, especially after 10 turns
  • English is not my native language; please excuse typing errors

Related: How can I efficiently manage Ship to Ship Tactical Combat and Boarding?

(Answers are expected to be primarily based on real experience, what you did in this situation and how it worked for you – demonstrate how your recommended technique or course of action is effective for the problem.)

How do you calculate CR for running battles?

I am creating an encounter for a game I am DMing and am wondering how you calculate CR for a running battle. What I mean by this is that characters will be fleeing through a zombie infested town, with zombies popping up at regular intervals(every 2-3 rounds).

Theoretically, the battle would never stop, so it’s effectively one encounter, but I don’t think standard CR calculations would work. 15 CR 1 monsters at once is a lot harder than 15 CR 1 monsters in groups of 1-2 in a steady stream.

Any guidelines on how to calculate an appropriate CR in order to balance this?