Do effects with the duration of one minute end at the beginning or the end of your turn?

The Rage class feature of the Barbarian allows you to rage for one minute given you either took damage or attacked every round.

A round is defined as a 6-second interval. So the rage can last up to 10 rounds. Now my question is, does it end at the end of your 10th round or at the beginning of your 11th round?

There are other effects like that, also concentration spells with the duration of 1 or 10 minutes. Sometimes those are activated before combat starts and end during combat.

In general:

Does an effect/concentration end at the end of your last turn during the timespan or at the beginning of your first turn after the timespan?

How do I best decide who knows what at the beginning of a game?

Adventure Paths (APs) come with a freely downloadable player’s guide that details a lot of things about the setting of the AP, including mechanical suggestions such as which prestige classes or class features are the most useful and a frontload of character knowledge about the place where the AP will start.

In the Player’s Guide to the Giantslayer AP, for instance, we get the main locations, main NPCs and main history facts about Trunau – but it is suggested that at least one character comes from Trunau, and the others might come from surrounding lands.

My players want to play a party of dwarves, so the guide suggests they come from Janderhoff (across the Mindspin Mountains, in Varisia), Glimmerhold (to the south of Janderhoff, in Nidal), or Kraggodan (further south, in the southern part of Nirmathas).

Given that there’s only a handful of dwarves in Trunau and that some are important NPCs, I guess that maybe one of the Trunau dwarves is a PC and the others might be clanmates visiting (or some other excuse we will concoct during session 0). So, their knowledge about Trunau, the Hold of Belkzen and the background that informs the actions of enemy NPCs might vary because of two factors:

1) where they come from, because people from Trunau will know more things abut Trunau and about Belkzen 2) their knowledge: history/nobilty modifiers

My aim is to provide each player a summary of useful informations and trivia that their character knows, in order to both help them create a character that feels like it belongs to the setting and to avoid the “you suddenly remember that” mechanic of knowledge skill checks.

What’s the best way to decide who knows what?

By best I mean the one that will make the most sense for the setting and the characters.

What could these

How to copy files on new HDD without empty space at the beginning NTFS partition

I wanted to backup files from one hdd to another similar, empty one without fragmentation. I tried using the Windows copy paste method inside windows Explorer, using SyncBack Pro and using Linux.

Windows and SyncBack Pro gave similar results – the files were fragmented (12% fragmentation shown inside Auslogics DisDefrag and O&O Defrag – which is bad), but there was no free space at the beginning of the NTFS partition (which is good, if you want to copy other files afterwards).

Linux gave a different result – the files were not fragmented, but the copy process left empty space at the beginning of the drive, before the location of the first files on the new drive.

Is it possible to copy files on new HDD without empty space at the beginning NTFS partition?

The results:

O&O Defrag results after SyncBack Pro copy

Smart Defrag results after SyncBack Pro copy

Smart Defrag, after using Windows to copy

As you can see in Smart Defrag I get red regions, meaning fragmented files.

Linux copy gives a different result:

Smart Defrag analysis results, after Linux copy using Files(nautilus)

I therefore started a defragmentation using Smart Defrag 6 – free space defragmentation method, and the files are moved to the beginning of the drive.

Smart Defrag, following Linux copy, during free space defragmentation

I want this final result, but directly using a copy methond inside Linux (or Windows – but I don’t think it’s possible).

Smart defrag 6 colors:

Magenta – Directories;

Red – Fragment;

Green – Frequently used;

Yellow – Master File Table;

Light Blue – Unmovable;

I need the partition to be NTFS.

I used a Ubuntu 14.04.6 x86 Live USB stick.

Inside Nautilus I used the default copy paste method.

I had 16 GB RAM and about 2 ssd-s and 3 HDDs connected.

The new drive had one NTFS partition, partitioned in Windows 7.

Thank you for your help.

How can I remove toy blast off my iphone ios 12 and start from the beginning

I have been trying to delete this game off my phone and to start over from the beginning. I went to storage and deleted it from there. It is not in the icloud either. I cannot find it in purchases in the app store. When I start game over again it remembers where I was and takes back o the exact same level. Please help.

How do I write an asterisk at the beginning of a line in wiki syntax without transforming into a list item?

When using wiki syntax, if I put an asterisk (*) at the beginning of a line, it gets transformed into a unordered list. How is it possible to have the asterisk to remain as it is when at the beginning of a line?

Example :

*Hello world, this sentence is not in an unordered list. 

How can I find matchings in a Bipartite graph beginning with specific vertices?

Context: I’m modelling kidney exchanges through directed acyclic graphs. I convert these to Bipartite graphs (by splitting each node into a donor and receiver, and the edge from the original graph exist between corresponding donors and receivers). I want a way to find maximum number of edges through disjoint chains and I’ve been trying to do so through maximum wtd matching.

I know I can use ford-fulkerson to find a maximum wtd perfect matching, however, the main problem I’m facing is that the matchings can only exist for chains beginning with specific vertices. For example, if this is my directed acyclic graph:

enter image description here

Turning this into a Bipartite graph and using the maximum wtd matching way, I get the chain 0->1->3->5->6 but I also get 2->4. However, I can only have chains beginning with 0 so 2->4 should not come up.

I wanted to know if there were any ways to work around this problem? Someone suggested making this a minimum cost perfect matching problem but I’m confused how.

I realise this is a weird question but any help would be appreciated!

Hitpoints after Bodysnatcher’s “Death is Only the Beginning”

The Mind Switch and True Mind Switch powers in Dreamscarred Press’s psionics supplement state that you retain your hitpoints when you use them.

The Bodysnatcher prestige class that revolves around the use of these powers has a capstone ability at 6th level that allows them to use True Mind Switch against their killer as an immediate action when you would drop to -1 or die to a death effect.

The end result seems pretty straightforward if this is used against a death effect, but I’m curious what would actually happen in the case of hit point damage. The way the ability is written it seems to assume that your former body still dies, but if the switched individuals are retaining their hit point totals, then it seems like you’d generally end up 1 hit from death in your new body and they’d just end up taking the one hit that finished you off, which often won’t be lethal to them unless they’re already low.

Is there something I’m missing about how this ability works, or is it kind of lackluster in the usual case of dying from hit point damage?

How to SUMIFS text beginning with apostrophe

I am receiving a list of products from an external data source. One of the the product names begins with an apostrophe. When I attempt to produce a summary of the products and total quantity using UNIQUE() and SUMIFS() the formula is returning zero for the product that begins with an apostrophe.

I have made an example sheet here:

Interestingly, a VLOOKUP will work fine, but that will miss additional entries in the list.

Does anyone have any ideas on how to solve this without removing the leading apostrophe?