How do decentralised systems deal with all nodes being killed

In relation to DHT’s (distributed hash tables), how do decentralised systems deal with all nodes disconnecting and thus having its routing meta data invalidated? i.e with the implementation of DHT’s in torrent clients, what would happen if all nodes (including the root/parent) were to become inactive? Would it mean all subsequent nodes that join wouldn’t be able to see anyone thus invalidating the system?

If this is the case, then is it wise to only use decentralisation on a system that will have constant connections? Or is it the case that its recommended to have the root/parent node be a centralised sever with the dedicated task of keeping the system alive, to create a hybrid mix of centralised & decentralisation?

Newly created fields are not being displayed

I have a content type “Article” with fields and data that was migrated from a Drupal 7 website.

  1. In the admin/structure/types/manage/article/fields I added a new text field called “Test” with default value some of some HTML added.
  2. Then, I went to manage form display and disabled that field from the form
  3. Then I went to manage display of the appropriate view mode and enabled that field.
  4. Flushed the cache

Reloading the article page doesn’t display the newly added field. I believe it is because there is no value in it, but shouldn’t adding a default value to the field pre-populate that field for all previous content belonging to that content type? Or am I missing something here?

Telling Probability of Point Configurations being in Convex Configuration from Vertex Degree in Planar Euclidean MSTs


Question:

what is the probability that four distinct points in general position in the Euclidean plane are in convex configuration, depending on the number of leaf nodes in their MST?

I assume that a quadruplet of points has a higher probability of being in convex configuration if its MST has two leaf nodes than if it has three, but that that probability is less than 1.

[ Law & Ethics ] Open Question : How can I go about being against my grandmother being taken off life support?

My grandmother has been on and off a ventilator with a trach for about 2 months now. She started doing good and even got weened off the vent for a while. But just recently she started needing the vent again and started pooling secretions which caused her to have to go back on the vent. See my grandmother has a really bad stroke. Well the place she at is a weening facility meaning they ween people off their ventilators, but if they can’t be weened and have to have the vent long term they have to go to Georgia for long term care (we live in Florida) and we live in south Florida so it’s not like we’re kinda close to Georgia. So basically our options are take her off the vent and let her die, or send her to Georgia. My mom is totally against her going to Georgia so basically she just wants her to be taken off and die. They scheduled for her to be taken off the vent Tuesday and it’s scaring me as we get closer. I want to ask the facility if we can have more time cause I’m just not ready to let her go and I don’t like the idea of scheduling her death. I was watching the live execution of Bobby Joe Long and it reminded me so much of my grandma, how were scheduling her execution. What should I do? Losing my grandma is like losing my mom cause she raised me.

What are the consequences of a player race not being humanoid? [duplicate]

This question already has an answer here:

  • What are the mechanical consequences of a Centaur's Fey trait? 2 answers

Part of the reason I’m asking this is because the UA centuar and minotaur both have a feature that says the type is both humanoid and monstrosity. This implies that having a non-humanoid race would not be balanced. But it seems that if the type was something like elemental it would be balanced due to the fact you could be bound using spells like planar binding and that this would offset the boost the spells such as hold person wouldn’t work on you.
So would such a race be balanced?

Is using a VPN or Proxy the only explanation for a wrong location being displayed?

My boyfriend is using an iPhone XS Max. He is in Johor, Malaysia, but his last active session displays that he is in Kuala Lumpur. He told me that he is in Johor, and he said the only reason why it’s displaying a wrong location is due to it possibly using a VPN or Proxy. Is this true? Or are there other reasons why it could show a wrong location?

EC2 ubuntu instance won’t boot properly after being stopped

I stopped my EC2 Ubuntu (can’t remember if it’s 14.04 or 16.04) instance and now I can’t access it.

These are the last couple lines of the system log.

Begin: Loading essential drivers ... done. Begin: Running /scripts/init-premount ... done. Begin: Mounting root file system ... Begin: Running /scripts/local-top ... done. Begin: Running /scripts/local-premount ... done. Warning: fsck not present, so skipping root file system [    9.413433] EXT4-fs (xvda1): mounted filesystem with ordered data mode. Opts: (null) done. Begin: Running /scripts/local-bottom ... done. Begin: Running /scripts/init-bottom ... Warning: overlayroot: debug is busted done. run-init: /sbin/init: No such file or directory Target filesystem doesn't have requested /sbin/init. run-init: /sbin/init: No such file or directory run-init: /etc/init: Permission denied run-init: /bin/init: No such file or directory /bin/sh: 0: can't access tty; job control turned off # [   37.220041] random: nonblocking pool is initialized 

I mounted my volume into another instance and checked, and /sbin/init is really not there.

In the new instance I launched, /sbin/init is a link to /lib/systemd/systemd. In the old volume, /lib/systemd/systemd apparently does not exist.

I also tried running fsck in the old volume and it didn’t work.

Any clues?

EC2 ubuntu instance won’t boot properly after being stopped

I stopped my EC2 Ubuntu (can’t remember if it’s 14.04 or 16.04) instance and now I can’t access it.

These are the last couple lines of the system log.

Begin: Loading essential drivers ... done. Begin: Running /scripts/init-premount ... done. Begin: Mounting root file system ... Begin: Running /scripts/local-top ... done. Begin: Running /scripts/local-premount ... done. Warning: fsck not present, so skipping root file system [    9.413433] EXT4-fs (xvda1): mounted filesystem with ordered data mode. Opts: (null) done. Begin: Running /scripts/local-bottom ... done. Begin: Running /scripts/init-bottom ... Warning: overlayroot: debug is busted done. run-init: /sbin/init: No such file or directory Target filesystem doesn't have requested /sbin/init. run-init: /sbin/init: No such file or directory run-init: /etc/init: Permission denied run-init: /bin/init: No such file or directory /bin/sh: 0: can't access tty; job control turned off # [   37.220041] random: nonblocking pool is initialized 

I mounted my volume into another instance and checked, and /sbin/init is really not there.

In the new instance I launched, /sbin/init is a link to /lib/systemd/systemd. In the old volume, /lib/systemd/systemd apparently does not exist.

I also tried running fsck in the old volume and it didn’t work.

Any clues?

Quicksort where element comparison outcome is random. Probability of element being in a certain position

So we have this block of pseudocode:

Monsters = [M1,M2,M3,M4,M5,M6,M7,M8]; qsort(Monsters,rand_compare); 

qsort() sorts the array via quicksort where we use the last element as pivot. To compare two elements it uses rand_compare, which, with equal probability (i.e., 1/2 either way), will return either “1. element is bigger” or “2. element is bigger” and never “both are equal”. What is the probability that M8 appears in position 0, 1 or 2, respectively, after applying qsort ?

I’m really not sure how to tackle this question. Intuitively it should be 1/8 for every position. Does it depend on what implementation of quicksort you use?