Does Barkskin cast before Wild Shaping apply to your beast form?

Assume you cast Barkskin in humanoid form:

You touch a willing creature. Until the spell ends, the target’s skin has a rough, bark-like appearance, and the target’s AC can’t be less than 16, regardless of what kind of arm or it is wearing.

It is clear that under the rules of Wild Shape “transforming doesn’t break your concentration on a spell you’ve already cast”, but does the effect of the spell carry over to your new skin?

Can a character without arms cast spells with somatic components?

My DM and I have been having friendly arguments, and we recently came to what would happen if my character lost all their limbs.

As a gnome beastmaster I said I would always sit on my mount and use mage hand (from magic initiate) when I need to eat or lift things. HOWEVER he argues I wouldn’t be able to perform the somatic component.

So, I ask: is there a way to cast spells without arms? My argument is that since I am learning the cantrip after losing my arms I would have learned it in a way that works with my stumps, but he points out the PHB is pretty clear you need a free hand.

Implicitly cast an ISO8601 string to TIMESTAMPTZ (postgresql) for Debezium

I am using a 3rd party application (Debezium Connector). It has to write date time strings in ISO-8601 format into a TIMESTAMPTZ column. Unfortunately this fails, because there is no implicit cast from varchar to timestamp tz.

I did notice that the following works:

SELECT TIMESTAMPTZ('2021-01-05T05:17:46Z'); SELECT TIMESTAMPTZ('2021-01-05T05:17:46.123Z'); 

I tried the following:

  1. Create a function and a cast
CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION varchar_to_timestamptz(val VARCHAR)  RETURNS timestamptz AS $  $       SELECT TIMESTAMPTZ(val) INTO tstz; $  $   LANGUAGE SQL; CREATE CAST (varchar as timestamptz) WITH FUNCTION varchar_to_timestamptz (varchar) AS IMPLICIT; 

Unfortunately, it gives the following errors:

function timestamptz(character varying) does not exist

  1. I also tried the same as above but using plpgsql and got the same error.

  2. I tried writing a manual parse, but had issues with the optional microsecond segment which gave me the following

CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION varchar_to_timestamptz (val varchar) RETURNS timestamptz AS $  $        SELECT CASE          WHEN $  1 LIKE '%.%'              THEN to_timestamp($  1, 'YYYY-MM-DD"T"HH24:MI:SS.USZ')::timestamp without time zone at time zone 'Etc/UTC'          ELSE to_timestamp($  1, 'YYYY-MM-DD"T"HH24:MI:SSZ')::timestamp without time zone at time zone 'Etc/UTC' END $  $   LANGUAGE SQL; 

Which worked, but didn’t feel correct.

Is there a better way to approach this implicit cast?

Can I just hold my Spellcasting Focus, instead of a material (with a price) that I own, to cast a spell?

Let’s say that I want to cast Soul Cage. I know that I need the tiny silver cage worth 100gp. Can I just have it attached to my belt and cast the spell using my Spellcasting focus, or do I need to hold specifically the tiny silver cage?

I’m a Hexblade Warlock with a glaive and the Improved Pact Weapon feature, wich makes my summoned glaive my Spellcasting Focus. I wonder if there’s a way to kill an enemy with my glaive then use my reaction to cast Soul Cage.

Can a mage cast spells that they don’t have as a rote/praxis?

From what I can read in the rulebook, there are three main ways to cast a spell:

  • Improvised spells, which always have a set of general effects.
  • Rotes, which treat the highest arcanum as 5 dots for the purposes of Reach, cost no mana and allow the caster to use mudras as yantras.
  • Praxes, which also cost no mana and crit success on 3 successes.

Did I miss a part of the book that describes how to cast existing spells outside these 3 ways? If so, please point me to the right section of the book.

Can you cast Call Lightning while submerged underwater? [duplicate]

We are running an underwater campaign where everyone is an aquatic race, and most of the campaign will take place completely underwater. Call Lightning says:

"A storm cloud appears in the shape of a cylinder that is 10 feet tall with a 60-foot radius, centered on a point you can see within range directly above you. The spell fails if you can’t see a point in the air where the storm cloud could appear (for example, if you are in a room that can’t accommodate the cloud)."

Does this literally mean you must be able to see a point "in the air", or could this work beneath the waves?

When do Druids gain the ability to cast each spell level?

I understand spells and that spell levels don’t correspond with character level but on this website it says:

Spell level and character level don’t correspond directly. Typically, a character has to be at least 17th level, not 9th level, to cast a 9th–level spell.

I understand this, but what character level is a Druid required to be to cast a spell at any given spell level?

Just to be clear, I am not asking about spell slots here.

Can Erupting Earth be cast somewhere that isn’t on “ground”?

The spell Erupting Earth says:

Choose a point you can see on the ground within range.

Does the use of the word "ground" limit this spell to floors that would be considered an "exposed surface of the earth"? Other possibilities include:

  1. An indoor room on an upper level or over a basement
  2. An outdoor deck or patio
  3. A raised platform like a stage or pulpit
  4. A roof
  5. A balcony

Related: Does the spell Erupting Earth disrupt the surface it’s cast on?