## does Voice of the Chain Master effectively replace Devil’s Sight If the warlock’s familiar is an imp? [duplicate]

to me, the Voice of the Chain Master invocation reads that it completely upgrades the basic Find Familiar spell, increasing the range of the telepathic communication to 100 feet and no longer requiring an action to perceive through its senses.

I have read Crawford’s Sage Advice saying you still require an action, but that was 4 years ago and he is known to change his rulings (though it might not have changed, just that people have not asked in a while)

## Given a CFG $G=(V_N, V_T, R, S)$ and one of its nonterminals $v$ determine if there exists a production chain $S \Rightarrow^* v \alpha$?

I am supposed to find an algorithm solving the following problem:

Given a CFG $$\;G=(V_N, V_T, R, S)$$ and a nonterminal $$v \in V_N$$ determine if there exists a production chain $$S \Rightarrow^* v \alpha$$, where $$\alpha = (V_N + V_T)^*$$.

Not sure if that’s the right term, but in other words we are trying to check if you can yield $$v$$ from $$S$$ – the starting symbol.

I don’t know anything about the form of the grammar and I can’t convert it into Chomsky’s form as it would introduce new nonterminals and possibly remove $$v$$. Where do I start with this? Any suggestions?

Thanks

## Correct CRL and OSCP URIs along certificate chain

Merely because of private interest and usage in my own network, I’m creating a certificate chain (Root CA → Intermediate CA → Server cert) using openssl. I’d like the certificate chain to be traceable and also being able to revoke certificates.

At the moment, I am not sure, which CRL distribution Points (crlDistributionPoints in openssl config speech) and OSCP URIs (authorityInfoAccess = OCSP;URI: ... and authorityInfoAccess = OCSP;caIssuers: ...) are the correct ones to set when creating a certificate. Examining the certificates of some public websites, it seems to me, that the following is the way to go. So, would you please check whether I’m right?

Root CA certificate:

• CRL: Root CA CRL or none at all
• OCSP URI: OCSP URI of Root CA or none at all
• CA Issuer: URI of Root CA certificate or none at all

Intermediate CA certificate:

• CRL: Root CA CRL
• OCSP URI: OCSP URI of Root CA
• CA Issuer: URI of Root CA

Server certificate:

• CRL: Intermediate CA CRL
• OCSP URI: OCSP URI of Intermediate CA*)
• CA Issuer: URI of Intermediate CA

*) It seems, one OCSP responder could handle OSCP requests for the Root and the intermediate CA. If so, I could also use the Root CA’s OSCP URI, right?

So, every certificates data have to point “one level up”, to the location, where its own validity can be checked. Is that correct?

And btw, is there any OCSP responder you can recommend? I tried openssl’s own one and the one from openca, but both had disadvantages for me.

## Modify Fibonacci Heap to Have a Linear Chain of Marked/Unmarked Nodes Only

In CLRS book there is an exercise (19.4-2) the aim of which is to create a linear chain of nodes by a sequence of Fibonacci-Heap operations. I have solved the problem by recursively making a union with a chain of two nodes, inserting a new minimum node and extracting the minimum, after which consolidation takes place and returns a new linear chain. Since there are no DECREASE-KEY or DELETE-NODE operations, no node is being marked.

My question is, is it possible to create a linear chain consisting of marked nodes only. If so, how?

I have tried several strategies. In one case I am getting a linear chain with all but the last node marked and I cannot proceed from there.

Another possibility is to get a chain as follows for $$n$$ nodes:

From here one can delete all the nodes on the shortest path for each sub-tree starting from the bottom to mark all of the nodes on the longer path. However, I cannot find a way to get this Fibonacci-Heap in the first place (and I am not sure whether it is possible). Any help would be appreciated.

## Does the Voice of the Chain Master invocation allow me to see through my familiar’s senses without using an action?

After reading this Sorlock guide and a further discussion in the comments about this topic, it’s still unclear to me if the Voice of the Chain Master invocation lifts the requirement of spending an action to perceive through the familiar’s senses.

The relevant part of the find familiar spell says:

While your familiar is within 100 feet of you, you can communicate with it telepathically. Additionally, as an action, you can see through your familiar’s eyes and hear what it hears until the start of your next turn, gaining the benefits of any special senses that the familiar has. During this time, you are deaf and blind with regard to your own senses.

The warlock’s Voice of the Chain Master eldritch invocation says, in part:

You can communicate telepathically with your familiar and perceive through your familiar’s senses as long as you are on the same plane of existence.

They invoke an explanation from Jeremy Crawford which, to me, doesn’t clarify anything at all:

Voice of the Chain Master enhances the find familiar spell, which otherwise works as written for the warlock.

To me, “enhances the find familiar spell” could either mean solely that it increases the range at which you can perceive through the familiar’s senses (or communicate telepathically), or that it both enhances the range and also removes the need to use your action to perceive through its senses. But again, this depends on how you read it.

Does Voice of the Chain Master remove the action usage requirement from find familiar? How are you arriving at that answer?

## At what level is the Pact of the Chain spell, Find Familiar, cast by a Warlock?

In a detail that came up as I asked this question I’d like to know how find familiar works for a Warlock who casts spells at levels above first level.

Pact of the Chain

You learn the find familiar spell {a first level spell} and can cast it as a ritual. The spell doesn’t count against your number of spells known.

A Warlock at level 4 knows 5 spells, has two spell slots and all spell slots are at level 2. (PHB table “The Warlock”). The Pact of the Chain find familiar does not count against spells known.

1. The Warlock gets this spell at third level after choosing Pact of the Chain. Is it a second level spell(per the table) or — since it doesn’t count against spells known and is cast as a ritual — does it remain a first level spell?

The Warlock table shows how many spell slots you have. The table also shows what the level of those slots is; all of your spell slots are the same level. {snip} … 5th level, you have two 3rd‑level spell slots. To cast the 1st-level spell Thunderwave, you must spend one of those slots, and you cast it as a 3rd‑level spell.

Is this Pact Boon outside of the limitations of the spells on the table?

Rules for spell casting, Rituals, includes this text:

The ritual version of a spell takes 10 minutes longer to cast than normal. *It also doesn’t expend a spell slot, which means *the ritual version of a spell can’t be cast at a higher level**.

This makes great sense for spells that have “at higher level.” Find familiar doesn’t have that feature, so I am not sure if this applies.

Since it doesn’t cost a spell slot, and is a ritual (not eligible to be cast at a higher level) would that Pact of the Chain boon remain a first level spell (regardless Warlock’s level who casts it), or does the Warlock table drive the spell level up?

The answer helps a question about how to fill up all of the spell slots in a Ring of Spell Storing. (If it stays at first level, this represents an exception to the general requirement that Warlock spell are always cast at the same level).

## Hinge joints chain movement (2D)

I have some problems with hinge joint chain movement calculations…

Here is my algorithm for segments location/rotation adjustments after a previous segment update (C#):

void AdjustLocation() {     float halfWidth = size.Width / 2;      // Translations     Vector parentBack = PrevSegment.Center - (halfWidth * new Vector(Cos(PrevSegment.Rotation), Sin(PrevSegment.Rotation))); // Green on the pic     Vector front = this.Center + (halfWidth * new Vector(Cos(this.Rotation), Sin(this.Rotation))); // Blue on the pic      // Const spacing between segments     float spacing = *some_value*;      Vector dv = parentBack - front;     float k = spacing / dv.Length;      // New front location     front = parentBack - (dv * k);     // New rotation     dv = front - this.Center;     this.Rotation = Atan2(dv.Y, dv.X);      // Translate back to the center     this.Center = front - (halfWidth * new Vector(Cos(this.Rotation), Sin(this.Rotation)));      NextSegment?.AdjustLocation(); } 

It’s working (partially), but it seems I’m missing something as it doesn’t behave like a chain. Segments always move one towards another although they should not always do this. Also overlapped sections of a long chain form a “knot” going all the way to the end of the chain before its “untangling”. What am I missing?

Btw: everything screws up with negative spacing values.

P.S. Tried to visualize the algorithm on the picture:

## Is the Pact of the chain is as bad as it look? or did I just missed something?

The warlock’s pact of the chain look really bad in comparison with other pacts options. You just can have better familiar than other peoples.

One the other hand, you have pact of the blade (aka I litteraly have a subclass based one me pact, and almost all my invocations are at least super usefull), and the pact of the tome (aka pact of the chain that come later but less good with an invocation + all rituals of the game + 3 cantrips – with Book of ancient secrets). Unless you are the group tank and you want the “An healing spell always make me full life” invocation – Gift of the Ever-living Ones – it’s look like an always bad choice.

Am I missing the point, or did this pact option is just a bad option?

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## Is a +1 chain shirt strictly inferior to a breastplate?

My character really likes chain shirts. He much prefers them to other armor like for instance a breastplate.

I thought maybe I could make up for his tastes with a piece of magical armor, since usually magic items are considered stronger than mundane ones. But I’m realising that it’s still not quite as good. There are two benefits to mundane armor that I can find, and no benefits to magic armor (besides the AC bonus).

1. Magic items can be suppressed by the antimagic field spell, and there seems to be no way to make magic armor not work that wouldn’t also work on magic armor. With mundane weapons some creatures will be able to resist, so magic on weapons is great. Not so with magical armor, as far as I know.

2. A Forge Cleric can use their Blessing of the Forge ability on nonmagical armor, but can’t use it on magical armor.

At 1st level, you gain the ability to imbue magic into a weapon or armor. At the end of a long rest, you can touch one nonmagical object that is a suit of armor or a simple or martial weapon. Until the end of your next long rest or until you die, the object becomes a magic item, granting a +1 bonus to AC if it’s armor or a +1 bonus to attack and damage rolls if it’s a weapon.

Is there anything a +1 chain shirt has that a mundane breastplate doesn’t have?