Output channel for audio resets after every reboot

I use my “Line Out – Built-in Audio” for my speakers, but for some reason, every time I reboot my computer, it changes by default to “Digital Output (S/PDIF) – Built-in Audio”.

The funny thing is that, if I unplug and re-plug my speaker connector, the channel changes by itself to “Line Out” without me having to do anything.

What could I do so that I can stop doing this annyoing step every day?

Do I have to move off the development channel for future releases of kubuntu?

I am currently running Kubuntu 19.04, and considering running the following,

update-manager -d 

To move to the development channel, and thus onto Kubuntu 19.10. If something goes wrong and I encounter some bugs I’m not too worried.

When 19.10 gets released I understand that keeping the OS updated with apt-get dist-upgrade or similar, will move me onto the beta, then stable 19.10 when they get released.

When work starts on 20.04 will I then be on the development channel again? Or will I have to run update-manager -d to chose when to go onto the dev channel?

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Ubuntu 18.04: Roland USB “Quad Capture” Two Channel Sound Device Enumerated as Analog Surround 4.0

Ran Ubuntu 18.04.2 LTS as a “Live DVD” and the Roland Quad Capture USB sound device worked perfectly. When Ubuntu 18.04 was installed to the hard drive, the “Quad Capture” (two channel, quad in name only) is enumerated as Analog Surround 4.0 with no option in the configuration to change it to 2 channel stereo. I cannot find a .conf file for the Roland in order to change the channel mappings. This is clearly a bug: The Quad Capture worked fine with an 18.04 live demo (with I suppose a default USB sound device configuration) but when enumerated on the final install the device does not work because its misidentified as being a four channel output device. Any ideas?

Example of channel where capacity is achieved without a uniform distribution on the output alphabet

The capacity of a discrete memoryless channel is given by the maximum of the mutual information over all possible input probability distributions. That is

\begin{align} C &= \max_{p_X} I(X:Y) \ &= \max_{p_X} H(Y) – H(Y|X) \end{align}

$ H(Y|X)$ is specified by the channel only and has nothing to do with $ p_X$ . Hence, it seems that maximizing the capacity is just equivalent to maximizing $ H(Y)$ i.e. we want to choose $ p_X$ that guarantees a uniform distribution over the output alphabet.

Incorrect claim: If we achieve the capacity of the channel, it must be the case that the distribution over the output alphabet is a uniform distribution.

In this lecture, a remark is made at 15:00. The lecturer remarks that this is not true for all channels. There exist channels where the capacity is achieved without even using the full output alphabet. Can anyone give an example of this and also some general intuition on when the claim becomes false?

How does the Trickery Domain cleric’s Invoke Duplicity Channel Divinity option work?

The Trickery Domain cleric gets the Channel Divinity: Invoke Duplicity feature at 2nd level, which creates “a perfect illusion of yourself” (PHB p.63).

However, CD:ID’s description doesn’t really tell us anything about what this illusory double actually does while it lasts (does it mimic its originator’s actions, or does it act independently?), nor do the rules tell us whether this duplicate can be revealed to be an illusion — using an Intelligence (Investigation) test, perhaps, or via a physical attack? — and if it can be, what happens if someone “sees through it”.

Have I missed something, or are the answers completely up to the DM? (I think the latter is perfectly fine, btw, just don’t want to houserule something that’s covered officially.)