How are modrons chosen to be promoted?

I am about to run an encounter of the week featuring modrons that includes combat encounters with monodrones and duodrones.

The stats for modrons state:

Cogs of the Great Machine. If a modron is destroyed, its remains disintegrate. A replacement from the next lowest rank then transforms in a flash of light, gaining the physical form of its new rank. The promoted modron is replaced by one of its underlings in the same manner, all the way to the lowest levels of the hierarchy.

Canonically, what is the mechanism that decides modron promotion? Would the physically closest modron (in the combat) be promoted? Would it be random? Would the promoted modron be on the same plane? Would it be Mechanus?

Does Magic Initiate allow the chosen spell to effectively be “always prepared” if the spell is on their spell list?

The Magic Initiate feat allows you to pick a 1st level spell, which you can cast once per long rest. From the PHB (p. 168):

Choose a class: bard, cleric, sorcerer, warlock, or wizard. You learn two cantrips of your choice from that class’s list.

In addition, choose one 1st-level spell from that same list. You learn that spell and can cast it at its lowest level. Once you cast it, you must finish a long rest before you can cast it again using this feat.

Your spellcasting ability for these spells depends on the class you chose: Charisma for bard, sorcerer, or warlock: Wisdom for cleric or druid; or Intelligence for wizard.

From the Sage Advice Compendium’s Magic Initiate section:

If you’re a spellcaster, can you pick your own class when you gain the Magic Initiate feat? Yes, the feat doesn’t say you can’t. For example, if you’re a wizard and gain the Magic Initiate feat, you can choose wizard and thereby learn two more wizard cantrips and another 1st-level wizard spell.

If you have spell slots, can you use them to cast the 1st level spell you learn with the Magic Initiate feat? Yes, but only if the class you pick for the feat is one of your classes. For example, if you pick sorcerer and you are a sorcerer, the Spellcasting feature for that class tells you that you can use your spell slots to cast the sorcerer spells you know, so you can use your spell slots to cast the 1st-level sorcerer spell you learn from Magic Initiate. Similarly, if you are a wizard and pick that class for the feat, you learn a 1st-level wizard spell, which you could add to your spellbook and subsequently prepare.

So, if my character is a spellcaster, we know that my character can learn a spell on their spell list, and they can use spell slots to cast it. For classes that have a number of spells known, like Bards, Sorcerers and Warlocks, this is straight forward. But what of classes that have to prepare their spells, such as Clerics, Druids and Wizards, to be able to cast them?

My question is, if I had a Cleric, Druid or Wizard, who took the Magic Initiate feat to learn a spell on their list (which they could then cast with a spell slot), would they still need to prepare the spell in order to cast it with a spell slot, or would this effectively give them an extra “prepared spell”?

If they simply know that spell because of the feat, and don’t need it prepared to be able to cast it once per long rest (via the feat), does that in some way bypass the need to prepare the spell to cast it via spell slots? This isn’t clear to me after having looked at the spellcasting class feature of such classes.

Can I use “chosen by the oracles” to increase damage?

I’m using L5R 4th Portuguese version (Brazilian). A player is using the Chosen by the Oracles ( You gain a bonus of +1k1 to the total of all Ring Rolls using that Ring. ) advantage to increase the damage of the The Fires from within (The spell has a DR equal to your Fire Ring) spell. He has Fire 4, so there’s 5k5 damage. Is that valid?

Thanks a lot!

(English is not my first language)

How a chosen prefix collision is more useful than a standard collision concerning hashing functions?

Recently a paper has been released about SHA-1 chosen prefix collision.

They present what a chosen prefix collision is, but I don’t understand how is it more interesting than a standard collision ? They briefly mention x509 rogue certificate, but I still can’t get the point.

Can anyone explain to me how interesting it is compared to standard collisions ? Hopefully with an example a bit more detailed ?

Thanks in advance !

Do the Deflect Attack from the Steel Defender apply to all attacks from the chosen creature?

In the new Eberron Book, the Battlesmith subclass grants you a Steel Defender that can use its reaction to give disadvantage on attacks roll of a creature.

It can move and use its reaction on its own, . . .*

Deflect Attack. The defender imposes disadvantage on the attack roll of one creature it can see that is within 5 feet of it, provided the attack roll is against a creature other than the defender.

Does the disadvantage apply to all attacks the chosen creature, or just to one of its attacks?

When gpg encrypt is called from the command line, how is a key chosen to do the encryption?

I am using GnuPG. When gpg encrypt is called from the command line, how is a key chosen to do the encryption? It appears to me that -r, or –recipient, supplies a user id and that is the simple answer. I believe all of the examples I have looked at they show an email address for recipient, which is required input when creating your key. However, I was able to create 2 keys with the exact same user name, comment, and email address. How does gpg pick a key if there are two keys that have identical email addresses and that email address is used for the recipient? It seems to me like using key id would be the best way to do this, but I do not see that option.

[ Politics ] Open Question : Should the deep state generals be locked up for mocking the Chosen One?

Are there any Chosen left in Faerûn following the Second Sundering?

Throughout Toril’s history, its various deities have engaged in a practice of vesting mortals with power and purpose. Those mortals are sometimes called Chosen. The Sword Coast Adventurer’s Guide contains a number of references to Chosen — including their involvement in tumultuous events during the Second Sundering. See, e.g., p. 17 (“Throughout this period, tales began to spread of individuals who had been touched by the gods and granted strange powers. Some of these so-called Chosen were at the root of the conflicts that grip the land.”)

A couple of SCAG‘s references might be read to suggest that, after the Second Sundering, Chosen might have become a thing of the past. To wit:

  • p. 9, a description of an uprising in Calimshan led by a Chosen of Ilmater notes that the Chosen disappeared and that “[m]any pray for the return of the Chosen and the completion of his work.”
  • p. 12, a discussion of Mulhorand says “the Chosen of the gods began to appear in the last few years,” and then a few sentences later mentions that “the upheaval ended and the Chosen began to disappear . . . .”
  • p. 18, detailing the year 1489 D.R., notes that by then “the deities ceased interfering with the world through their Chosen. The gods were no longer silent but quiet, and in many places new priesthoods arose to interpret the gods’ now subtle signs.”
  • p. 45, a story about the grisly revelation “[j]ust a few years ago” that

None of these references mention any Chosen currently active in Faerûn. Several of them strongly imply that certain Chosen disappeared and have not reappeared.

Is there any evidence in first-party published materials that the Chosen are still a phenomenon in the post-Second Sundering world?

The Shaman wandering spirit Lore grants bonus arcane spells, is there a spell level limit to what spells can be chosen?

The Shaman wandering spirit Lore grants bonus arcane spells, is there a spell level limit to what spells can be chosen?

The hex says:

Arcane Enlightenment (Su): The shaman’s native intelligence grants her the ability to tap into arcane lore. The shaman can add a number of spells from the sorcerer/wizard spell list equal to her Charisma modifier (minimum 1) to the list of shaman spells she can prepare. To cast these spells she must have an Intelligence score equal to at least 10 + the spell’s level, but the saving throw DCs of these spells are based on her Wisdom rather than Intelligence. When she casts these spells, they are treated as divine rather than arcane. Each time the shaman gains a level after taking this hex, she can choose to replace one of these spells for a new spell on the wizard/sorcerer spell list.

Emphasis mine.

The only limit seems to be on casting the spells. Does this mean you choose all high level spells, but are limited by the level of spells you can cast as a shaman?