Do Life Domain Clerics Gain Access to Any Non-Cleric Spells in 5e?

PHB pg 60 lists the domain spells that Life domain clerics gain access to each odd level from 1 through 9, but these spells are all spells that clerics automatically have available anyway. For example, at level 3, all clerics learn 2nd level cleric spells and at level 3 when you’ve chosen Life domain, the two spells you gain access to are Lesser Restoration and spiritual weapon. But these are both included in the 2nd level cleric spells that you would have access to automatically under any other domain.

Conversely, other domains get access to spells not available to other clerics at odd 1-9 levels (such as Mirror Image and Pass Without a Trace at 3rd level for the Trickster domain, just as an example).

So do Life domain clerics just get the short end of the stick? Or do those Life domain spells in particular get some sort of bonuses or something?

Is a Circle of Stars Druid’s Chalice form affected by Grave Cleric’s Circle of Mortality?

If a Stars Druid/Grave Cleric multiclass were to use a Cure Wounds on an unconscious creature at 0 hp, and they designate that creature as a target of their Chalice form’s healing ability, does that mean they receive 16+double wisdom mod healing, or 8+1d8+double wisdom mod healing?

Circle of Mortality

At 1st level, you gain the ability to manipulate the line between life and death. When you would normally roll one or more dice to restore hit points with a spell to a creature at 0 hit points, you instead use the highest number possible for each die.

Chalice. A constellation of a life-giving goblet appears on you. Whenever you cast a spell using a spell slot that restores hit points to a creature, you or another creature within 30 feet of you can regain hit points equal to 1d8 + your Wisdom modifier.

Peace Domain Cleric’s Protecting Bond feature: Can you reduce/negate the damage?

I was reading up this new subclass’s feature which reads:

The bond you forge between people helps them protect each other. When a creature affected by your Emboldening Bond feature is about to take damage, a second bonded creature within 30 feet of the first can use its reaction to teleport to an unoccupied space within 5 feet of the first creature. The second creature then takes all the damage instead.

(emphasis mine)

Now I know that usually when damage can’t be reduced or bypasses resistances, it is explicitly stated. However I’m uncertain if it has ever been stated in this way. Is this just a verbose way of saying the second creature takes the damage, or does it really take all the damage?

If it bypasses resistances and immunities, what about temporary hit points? could it be reduced or negated by magic (something like Resilient Sphere)?

Peace Cleric’s Emboldening Bond: can the 1d4 be rolled more than once per turn, if it’s only used once?

The Peace Cleric’s Emboldening Bond feature can temporary bond creatures together. The effect is as follow

While any bonded creature is within 30 feet of another, the creature can roll a d4 and add the number rolled to an attack roll, an ability check, or a saving throw it makes. Each creature can add the d4 no more than once per turn.

The text specifies that the 1d4 can be added once per turn.

However, can it be rolled more than once?

For example, suppose I have extra attack, miss, and roll 1 on the 1d4. Could I choose not to add the result of the 1d4 for the first attack, and instead roll it again and add it to the second attack?

Do Grave Domain clerics get the additional Spare the Dying benefits if they already know the spell?

The Grave Domain Cleric learns the spare the dying cantrip at level 1 via the class feature Circle of Mortality, which also gives them extra benefits relating to it. Part of the description of the feature says (XGtE, pg. 20):

… In addition, you learn the spare the dying cantrip, which doesn’t count against the number of cleric cantrips you know. For you, it has a range of 30 feet, and you can cast it as a bonus action.

However, what if I multiclass into cleric and I already have the spare the dying cantrip (e.g. via having taken Magic Initiate before now or, in my case, via originally being a Warlock with the Undying patron, which also grants this cantrip at level 1)?

Similar bonus cantrips usually have wording more like the Light Domain Cleric (PHB, pg. 61):

When you choose this domain at 1st level, you gain the light cantrip if you don’t already know it.

The Circle of Mortality class feature doesn’t say something like “if you don’t already know it”. Thus, if I already have the cantrip, do the extra benefits still count (i.e. increased range and option to cast it as a bonus action) since this class feature was not the one to grant me this cantrip in the first place?

If one target of a Twinned Spell has 0 HP, does the Grave cleric’s Circle of Mortality feature maximize healing on a second target who’s not at 0 HP?

One PC is a multiclassed Grave Domain cleric/sorcerer. They cast a healing spell on a PC that has 0 health, and use the Twinned Spell Metamagic option to target another PC with the same spell.

Would the second PC also have its healing from the spell maximized by the Grave cleric’s Circle of Mortality feature (XGtE, p. 20), even if the second PC is not also at 0 HP?

Atheism in the DnD5e universe: is it a thing, and how common is it? Are clerics accepted to derive power from the divine?

My question comes up from a bit of weird exchange we had last session. Short version of the question: Is not believing in the existence of gods in most DnD universes really a widespread thing? Are clerics that can tap into these abilities very uncommon or believed to get their magic from some other source? And if no to these, how does one handle PC’s behaving as if this were so?

Long version: I ended up multiclassing cleric through a pretty cool set of story hooks that my DM did a good job working with me in setting up. I definitely wasn’t a stereotypical stoic priest preaching about my god or anything like that.

In terms of story as it played out when I revealed this new power to the rest of the party (which they were present OOC for me receiving), one of our party had a roleplay situation that came where I could use my new class to help, and I told the rest of party that if they would help me, I’d like to offer this help to the other PC (the object of the help was not present IC so didn’t react).

I was kinda bummed that the reception was anywhere from condescension to incredulity (both IC and OOC), at least one of them heavily implying that thinking a god exists is stupid, and I really felt like this was out of place; my impression (granted, as someone fairly new to this) was that the existence of gods in the DnD universes are no more contested than the existence of magic: it exists, everyone knows it exists whether or not they’ve directly been affected by it. Is this impression wrong? I feel as though nobody would have blinked if I multiclassed into warlock and made a pact with a supernatural being, but for some reason because it was explicitly a ‘god’ I attuned to there was a lot more incredulity.

I’m not really sure how to handle this going forward. Is this the sort of thing I should talk the DM about and get straight? Should I talk with the other players directly? Is my impression on the wide acceptance of gods just wrong? Not sure how to deal with this, IC or OOC. It sorta sucks, because I was really excited for this multiclass and I walked away feeling kinda dumb and not really being into it anymore. Thanks for suggestions.

E: Should have mentioned, we are using homebrew that seems to get material like this from Forgotten Realms based on our warlock’s already-existing pact. DM hasn’t mentioned to either of us to tailor our choices of being to his setting.

A question about cleric’s alignement restriction on spells

A Cleric can only cast spells of the same alignment to his own or his deity’s.

What happens when a character multiclasses into another spellcasting class? Does the Cleric’s alignment restriction extends to those spells learned with an arcane casting class?

For example: Is it possible for a wizard to cast a spell with the Chaotic descriptor if he/she has multiclassed into a cleric whose deity is lawfully aligned?