Can firearms be used during close combat?

Fairly new Keeper here.

During the last session, almost all of the players used their readied small firearms (pistols) during close quarters combat. Together with firing multiple shots when it was their turn, they seemed to have a giant advantage over small weapons, like a knife or club.

So, is there a rule for using a readied firearm during a brawl? I can’t imagine that one would be able to easily gun the opponent down (as long as there are still bullets loaded), rather than being hindered to shoot (e.g., both characters struggle for weapon control).

Can players be forced to use their hand combat skill?

How close can you get to enemies before having to roll stealth?

The following situation: 2 Members of the party try to sneak up on distracted enemies. The other two, not stealth proficient players want to stay 20 feet behind, not roll stealth and join after the others. The approach is fine by me, but I am really confused about how near they can get before being noticed. This is important because I need to know how long they will take to join the fight afterward.

If I had to guess, I would say there is a detection range, how far a creature can detect others. Is there any rule for that or does the DM have to arbitrarily decide every time? Also, how does the alertness of the detecting creature and the environment (i.e. reverberation in a dungeon) factor into this?

Clear variables on window close

I’m using

DynamicModule[{ var1, var2 },  CreateDialog[ (*some code here*) ]] 

In order to be able to deal with memory isolation for multiple copies of a program running at once. Is there an option to use in CreateDialog to run a command upon the closing of that Dialog? When that window gets closed I would like to clear all the variables to free up the memory.

Best spells or powers for punishing anyone too close to me

I have a character with a reach of 20-25 feet depending on the buffs I have operational, with a specialty in grappling. The goal is to grab enemies and drag them to my space—and have my space, or better spaces near me, be very unpleasant places to be. For example, I have a blackguard’s aura of despair, and I’m considering Focalor’s aura of sadness and the enlightened spirit’s aura of menace.

But beyond those save-nuking auras, I’m kind of coming up short on how to most make “near me” be the worst possible place for an enemy to be. I’m looking for passive effects so I can focus my actions on just dragging in as many foes as possible. I figure spells or powers are probably my bet on this front, but I’m not coming up with much:

D&D 3.5e:

  • Acid sheath—2 acid damage per round to creatures in a grapple with me
  • Aura of the sun—1d6 positive energy damage to undead around me each round
  • Aura of cold—comes in lesser and greater varieties, which do 1d6 or 2d6 cold damage, respectively, per round to creatures within 10 feet.
  • Babau slime—1d8 acid damage per round to grappled creatures.
  • Balor nimbus—6d6 (as a 2nd-level spell) fire damage per round to grappled creatures.
  • Body of the sun—1d4/2 levels fire damage per round to creatures within 5 feet.
  • Corona of cold—1d12 cold damage per round, and applies a −2 penalty to Strength and Dexterity and halves speed, to creatures within 10 feet.
  • Negative energy aura—1 damage per 3 levels, or 2 healing for undead creatures, each round, in 10-ft radius.
  • Positive energy aura—1 healing per 3 levels, or 2 damage for undead creatures, each round, in 10-ft radius.
  • Pulse of hate–2d6 “unholy” damage per round in 10-ft radius.


  • Cape of wasps—described as a wasp swarm sharing your space, which means other creatures sharing your space (e.g. creatures you’ve grappled under 3.5e rules, which we are using) arguably take the 2d6+poison swarm damage of the wasp swarm each round. The spell doesn’t come out and say that, though, and sharing a space with someone is a lot harder in Pathfinder than it is in 3.5e, so it’s unclear if this was intended functionality.

So what I’m looking for are official spells or powers from D&D 3.5e (all WotC-published sources as well as Dragon and Dungeon magazine issues, including 3.5e-legal 3e material) or Pathfinder (all Paizo-or-Dreamscarred-Press-published sources) that introduce some kind of emanation or aura that extends from my space, out to 20 feet or less (if it’s larger, I have no need to drag them into it). The emanation must last for some period of time, the longer the better. I would restrict this more (class, level, effects), except that I’ve already done a bunch of research and come up with nearly nothing. My character is a psion egoist, but adaptation or multiclassing might be possible. However, Epic and Mythic material are both banned.

For this question, I’ll hear out answers that include polymorph, but know that I view polymorph pretty dimly and also that it would conflict with some of the things that my character is already doing (i.e. various character features would be lost), so polymorph options rate pretty poorly in my estimation—I’d appreciate it if we’d restrict mentions of it to truly stand-out effects you couldn’t get elsewhere.

When sharing the Eyes of Night darkvision, does a creature needs to always be 10 feet close to the cleric to be granted the benefits?

The Eyes of Night feature from the Twilight Domain Cleric, introduced in Tasha’s Cauldron of Everything pg. 34, grants darkvision to the cleric:

You can see through the deepest gloom. You have darkvision out to a range of 300 feet.

It also allows the cleric to share this darkvision with willing creatures:

As an action, you can magically share the darkvision of this feature with willing creatures you can see within 10 feet of you, up to a number of creatures equal to your Wisdom modifier (minimum of one creature). The shared darkvision lasts for 1 hour. […]

It’s clear that the creature needs to be within 10 feet of the cleric for him to use an action to share the darkvision. But once shared, does that creature needs to be within 10 feet of the cleric to be granted the benefits of the darkvision from Eyes of Night? Since the sharing has a duration 1 hour I’m wondering what if a creature that wandered far away from the cleric would still be granted this benefit.

Why if the targetToFollow(Player) is rotating and facing the transform the player can get close to the transform even touch it?

using System; using System.Collections; using System.Collections.Generic; using System.Linq; using UnityEngine; using UnityEngine.UI; using UnityStandardAssets.Characters.ThirdPerson;  public class Follow : MonoBehaviour {     public Transform targetToFollow;     public Transform missionTarget;     public GameObject naviParent;     public ThirdPersonCharacter thirdPersonCharacter;     public Text textDistance;     public Text textSpeed;     public float lookAtRotationSpeed;     public float moveSpeed;     public float followRadius = 1.5f;     public float fastRadius = 5f;     public float speedBoost = 0.5f;     public bool follow = false;     public bool reachTarget = false;      private bool isNaviChild = false;     private Vector3 lTargetDir;     private float originSpeed;     private float originFollowRadius;      void Start()     {         originSpeed = moveSpeed;         originFollowRadius = followRadius;          if (reachTarget)         {             moveSpeed = thirdPersonCharacter.m_MoveSpeedMultiplier * 5;             followRadius = 0.1f;         }     }      // Update is called once per frame     void FixedUpdate()     {         if (follow)         {             if(reachTarget)             {                 moveSpeed = thirdPersonCharacter.m_MoveSpeedMultiplier * 5;                 followRadius = 0.1f;             }             else             {                 moveSpeed = originSpeed;                 followRadius = originFollowRadius;             }              lTargetDir = targetToFollow.position - transform.position;             lTargetDir.y = 0.0f;              Turn();              float ms = moveSpeed;             var distance = Vector3.Distance(transform.position, targetToFollow.position);             // Compute a position no further than followRadius away from our target.             Vector3 fromTarget = Vector3.ClampMagnitude(                 -lTargetDir, followRadius);             Vector3 stopPoint = targetToFollow.position + fromTarget;              // Compute a speed that's faster when far away and slower when close.             float speedBlend = Mathf.Clamp01((distance - followRadius) / (fastRadius - followRadius));              ms = moveSpeed + speedBlend * speedBoost;              // Move as far as we can at our speed ms to reach the stopPoint, without overshooting.             transform.position = Vector3.MoveTowards(transform.position,                 stopPoint, Time.deltaTime * ms);              var dist = Vector3.Distance(transform.position, targetToFollow.position);             if (dist < 0.1f && isNaviChild == false && reachTarget)             {                 transform.parent = targetToFollow;                 transform.localPosition = new Vector3(0, 0, 0);                 transform.localRotation = Quaternion.identity;                 transform.localScale = new Vector3(0.001f, 0.001f, 0.001f);                  isNaviChild = true;             }         }     }      private void Turn()     {         transform.rotation = Quaternion.RotateTowards(transform.rotation,                 Quaternion.LookRotation(lTargetDir), Time.time * lookAtRotationSpeed);     }      private void Mission()     {      } } 

When the bool flag follow is true and the bool flag reachTarget is false the transform that this script is attached to is moving towards the targetToFollow and then when the targetTofollow(in this case the target is the player that move by the kleys WSAD) move the transform is following him with keeping distance to follow that’s the followRadius.

The problem is that if I rotate my place to face the transform and then moving the player forward he will be able to get too close to the transform even touching it.

But in my logic if the radius to follow is 1.5 so even if the player will face the transform and try to move forward to it the transform should always move to the back of the player or move back and keep the follow radius of 1.5 or if the follow radius is 66.3 then 66.3

The player should not be able to get so close to the transform.

How can I solve it ?

Should close $wpdb via $wpdb->close()

I’ve been writing a few custom plugins for my site and I was wondering about the correct way to interact with $ wpdb. My plugin executes a few queries using the global $ wpdb connection. I noticed that a $ wpdb->close(); method has been added to WordPress, to close the database connection object.

My question is: Should a plugin close out the connection after executing queries?

I have been searched on the folder of some famous plugin(like rank math, Yoast). they use $ wpdb a lot but I could not find $ wpdb->close() on their code. I mean at the end of their function they do not close query.

for example, I have been writing a function for counting post from last week

    function get_posts_count_from_last_week($  post_type = 'post')  {         global $  wpdb;         $  numposts = $  wpdb->get_var($  wpdb->prepare("SELECT COUNT(ID) " . "FROM " . $  wpdb->posts . " WHERE post_status='publish' AND post_type= %s AND post_date> %s", $  post_type, date('Y-m-d H:i:s', strtotime('-168 hours'))));         return $  numposts;  } 

I get a lot of “WordPress database error Commands out of sync; you can’t run this command now for query SELECT” So I have to put $ wpdb->close(); before return and after that I did not get Commands out of sync at all.

I confuse, why I have to close the connection when other plugins don’t do that! by the way in my theme I have some functions with global $ wpdb but, again there is not any $ wpdb->close() for closing.

Can a top level domain provider close their business? [duplicate]

If I buy one of those weird top level domains, like, or, etc, I understand that there is a private company owning each of them, which save the records and redirect using their own servers. (obligated to ICANN)

Question is, if this company closed, or go out of business, or just decide they don’t want to provide service anymore, what happens to all the websites with this extension?

In other words, is it safe to buy one of those top level domains? also, can it reduce speed if they don’t operate well enough?

So as to give however much close to home data as could reasonably be

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How to close all torrent ports on Windows [closed]

I used to use Deluge to download stuff from torrent (like Linux ISOs), but now I stopped doing it as it’s a huge risk security-wise. I uninstalled Deluge, but I wonder what I have to do to find out whether some torrent ports are still open and I’m at risk of being attacked.

Also, is there a way to find out if I’ve been attacked through torrent?