Does Assassinate come into play whenever the Rogue catches the target off guard?

The Assassinate ability under the Assassin subclass of Rogue states:

Starting at 3rd level, you are at your deadliest when you get the drop on your enemies. You have advantage on attack rolls against any creature that hasn’t taken a turn in the combat yet. In addition, any hit you score against a creature that is surprised is a critical hit.”

That last sentence has confused me: “In addition, any hit you score against a creature that is surprised is a critical hit.” Does that apply any time the Rogue catches the target off guard (such as an attack from hiding), or only in a surprise round?

Do integrity and authentication always come together?

I cannot come up with a case where there is only one of them.

When there is integrity, a random person cannot modify the message without being noticed. That is, an unauthenticated user cannot modify the message without being noticed. Therefore there is authentication.

When there is authentication, nobody except the sender can change the message after MAC or signature is added. Therefore there is integrity.

Am I missing something?

How come there are two King of Diamonds entries for the Curse of Strahd tarokka card readings?

In Curse of Strahd, p. 15, it shows two entries for “Broken One (King of Diamonds)”, one after the other (I’m not using spoiler tags because they only work without line breaks, and that makes the below look like a mess):

A. Broken One (King of Diamonds) Your greatest ally will be a wizard. His mind is broken, but his spells are strong.

This card refers to the Mad Mage of Mount Baratok (see chapter 2, area M).

B. Broken One (King of Diamonds) I see a man of faith whose sanity hangs by a thread. He has lost someone close to him.

This card refers to Donavich, the priest in the village of Barovia (see chapter 3, area ES). He will not accompany the characters until his son, Doru, is dead and buried.

Is there errata for this? Or have I missed something?

Actually, I’ve just noticed that there are other duplicate entries, so maybe I’ve missed the point. Am I supposed to pick whichever one I, as DM, think would be more interesting? I’d still appreciate some clarification on this, despite the fact that I might be missing the point.

How to intuitively come up with an example for an ambiguous grammar and how to make that grammar unambiguous?

I don’t get how to intuitively come up with an example for an ambiguous grammar.

Let’s take as an example this grammar:

Declaration ::= Type D ;          Type ::= "int" | "char"          D ::= "*" D             |  D "[" number "]"             |  D "(" Type ")"             |  "(" D ")"             |  name 

I am told outright that this grammar is ambiguous. What is expected of me is to find one example that proves that it is. What I’m interested is what is the thought process that allows you to find an example. Our teacher just gave us one example that would show that we would obtain two different derivation tree like:

int *foo[5];  has two derivation tree              Declaration              Declaration              /    |   \               /    |   \            Type   D    ;            Type   D    ;             |    / \                 |    / \____            int  *   D               int  /   \ \ \                    / \____              D    [ 5 ]                   /   \ \ \            / \                  D    [ 5 ]           *   D                  |                        |                 foo                      foo  

However I have no idea how he thought to himself that int*foo[5] would be the example before doing the trees. It all boils down to how they did it without trial and error?

How to make that grammar unambiguous? I was also given the task to make the above grammar unambiguous. However I don’t know yet again what is the intuition behind making it unambiguous.

They gave us this solution:

 Declaration ::= Type D ;        Type ::= "int" | "char"        D ::= "*" D           |  "(" D ")" D'           |  name D'        D' ::= "[" number "]" D'            |  "(" Type ")" D'            |  empty               <== empty string  

There must be a pattern in all of this. What it is? What is the general method to solve this type of problem regardless of which grammar is given?

Do purchased weapons come with a sheath?

A sheath, found in the adventure gear table on pg.288 of the core rules, cost 1cp. It is described on pg.291:

A sheath or scabbard lets you easily carry a weapon on your person

Many of the Class kits, found on the next page, come with one sheath included.

Fighter

…Price, Bulk, &c.

Gear adventurer’s pack, grappling hook, sheath

(emph. mine.)

Does this imply you need to buy a 1cp sheath along with every weapon, or do weapons you purchase from the weapons table automatically come with one?

How come “Move To” does not move all files?

Using SharePoint Online, whenever I attempt to move a folder, via the “Move To” menu option, it seems to only move some of the files. It looks like all folders are created in the destination location, but only some of the files are moved. There’s no rhyme or reason to why some files are moved while others are not.

The progress screen appears to show all of them having moved, but checking the destination location does not show them as being there and they still remain in the source location.

How come changing the speed of an animation isnt making the animation speed up?

I made an animation of a bow string being pulled and another animation of the string being released but my issue is that I need the string to snap back quickly. I changed the speed of the release animation which is what makes the string go back to being straight (as if you had just released it). However, changing the speed isn’t making the animation happen any faster… Any ideas why this might be happening?

Just to show u I'm not an idiot and I'm changing the speed in the right spot