## Is this “Circle of Shadows” Druid Circle balanced compared to Circle of the Moon

I came up with my own subclass. I modeled it slightly after the Circle of the Moon, which is why I’m specifically asking for comparison to it. Well, here it is.

Druid Circle: Circle of Shadows

Once there was a dark elf, he had had his heart set on joining a druid circle. All of those circles shunned him. He started his own circle. The circle of shadows.

“The shadow didn’t consume me; I consumed the shadow.”

Starting at 2nd level, when you use wild shape, you can transform into a Shadow. You also learn the Umbraturgy cantrip. Finally, you gain darkvision for 60ft, if you already had it, it increases by 60ft.

“The shadow moves with me; we are becoming one.”

Starting at 6th level, your attacks in regular form and beast from are considered magical for the purpose of overcoming resistance and immunity, in addition, you can spend a spell slot and enhance a weapon. The weapon you enhanced does an extra 1d4 necrotic damage on a hit per level of expanded spell slot.

“The shadow climbs into my soul, second by second it reaches more.”

At 14th level, when you use wild shape, you can transom into a wraith. You gain the benefits of shadow enhanced strikes while in this form.

A True Wraith

I join hands with my shadow we sing songs of praise to the darkness that is inside me. and the darkness the he is made of. I am one with the shadow.”

At 14th level, you now can expand a spell slot to gain a hovering speed but can hover no more than 5ft off the ground. The hovering speed equals the level of the spell slot spend times 10 (1st level = 10ft 2nd level = 20ft etc.) In addition, you can cast the invisibility spell (lowest level) at will, but you must be in dim light or darkness.

## How much more powerful are regexes in modern programming languages compared to regular expressions from the theory of computation?

Are the ones in modern programming languages equivalent to, say, Context-Free Grammars or is there an intermediate (between finite automata and CFGs) set of languages that it covers?

## Is this homebrew Shifter class balanced compared to the official classes?

One of my players wanted a non-spellcasting druid, is this balanced compared to the official classes?

# The Shifter

The shifters, unlike the druids, lack a mystical connection to nature, and do not use nature to cast their spells. Shifters manipulate their magical energy to turn into a variety of creatures to terrify and defeat their foes, and as they do sap their energy for magic, they can transform far more often.

Hit Dice: D6
Hit Points at 1st Level: 6 + your constitution modifier
Hit Points at Higher Levels: 1d6 (4) per level after 1st

### Proficiencies:

• Weapons: Daggers, Clubs, Sickles, Slings
• Armor: None
• Saving Throws: Wisdom, Charisma
• Skills: Nature, Arcana, and one other of your choice.
• Tools: None

### Starting Equipment:

• One of
• A dagger and a sickles, or
• A sling and 20 bullets
• An explorer’s pack and a club.

$$\begin{array}{r r l r r} \textbf{Level} & \textbf{Prof. Bonus} & \textbf{Features} & \textbf{Shift Points} & \textbf{Max CR} \ \hline 1^\text{st} & +2 & \text{Shifting} & 2 & 1 \ 2^\text{nd} & +2 & \text{Cantrip Casting} & 2 & 1 \ 3^\text{rd} & +2 & \text{Subclass} & 5 & 2 \ 4^\text{th} & +2 & \text{ASI} & 5 & 2 \ 5^\text{th} & +3 & & 8 & 3 \ 6^\text{th} & +3 & \text{Subclass feature} & 8 & 3 \ 7^\text{th} & +3 & & 13 & 4 \ 8^\text{th} & +3 & \text{ASI} & 13 & 4 \ 9^\text{th} & +4 & & 21 & 5 \ 10^\text{th} & +4 & \text{Mask of Many Faces} & 21 & 5 \ 11^\text{th} & +4 & & 34 & 6 \ 12^\text{th} & +4 & \text{ASI} & 34 & 6 \ 13^\text{th} & +5 & & 55 & 7 \ 14^\text{th} & +5 & \text{Subclass feature} & 55 & 7 \ 15^\text{th} & +5 & & 89 & 8 \ 16^\text{th} & +5 & \text{ASI} & 89 & 8 \ 17^\text{th} & +6 & & 144 & 9 \ 18^\text{th} & +6 & \text{Shift into Youth} & 144 & 9 \ 19^\text{th} & +6 & \text{ASI} & 144 & 10 \ 20^\text{th} & +6 & \text{Tarrasque} & 150 & 10 \ \end{array}$$

### Shifting

At 1st level, you gain the ability to transform. Choose 3 beasts of CR 0. Those are your cantrip transformations, which you can shift into at will. To transform into creatures of higher CR, you must spend Shift Points as shown in the table below:

$$\begin{array}{r|r} \textbf{CR} & \textbf{Cost} \ \hline 1 & 1 \ 2 & 3 \ 3 & 5 \ 4 & 7 \ 5 & 12 \ 6 & 17 \ 7 & 25 \ 8 & 45 \ 9 & 75 \ 10 & 100 \ \end{array}$$

Until you choose a subclass at 3rd level, you can only transform into beasts. When you shift, you can assume the appearance and abilties of any beast. You keep your INT, WIS, CHA scores, but your STR, DEX, and CON scores are replaced with that of the beast. You retain your hit points, but gain temporary hitpoints equal to half those of the beast you transform into. Shifting takes an action, you can revert to human form as a bonus action. You also revert if you drop to zero hitpoints. When you revert to human form, you lose any temporary hitpoints you have. You can only shift while in human form. You cannot cast or concentrate on spells while transformed. You can only shift into a creature if you have enough SP and the creature’s CR is less than or equal to your max CR. You regain all SP after a long rest. Anything you are wearing or carrying is absorbed into your form until you revert, creatures you shift into cannot wield your weapons or armor.

### Cantrip Casting

At 2nd level, you gain the ability to cast spells, however, due to your magic energy being sapped for transformation, you can only cast cantrips. You know every cantrip. You must spend 1 SP to cast a cantrip, and the cost of casting a cantrip increases by 2 SP whenever you cast one. Wisdom is your spellcasting modifier for these spells. The cost of casting a cantrip resets to 1 SP whenever you finish a long rest.

### Subclass

At 3rd level, choose between the Ooze Order, the Undead Order, the Fiend Order, the Aberrant Order, the Plant Order, the Elemental Order, the Dragon Order, the Celestial Order, the Monster Order, and the Fey Order.

### ASIs

At 4th, 8th, 12th, 16th, and 19th level, you can increase an ability score of your choice by 2, or two ability scores by 1, or take a feat. You cannot increase an ability score over 20 using this feature.

### Mask of Many Faces

At 10th level, you can cast alter self at will.

### Shift into Youth

At 18th level, you stop aging and cannot be aged magically.

### Tarrasque

At 20th level, you can shift into a Tarrasque. Once you do so, you cannot do so again for a month. Immediately after you revert, you gain a level of exhaustion that can never be removed, even with a wish spell, even with divine intervention, even if you are killed and revived.

## The Ooze Order

At 3rd level, you gain the ability to shift into oozes as well as beasts. If you shift into an ooze, it costs twice as much SP as it normally would.

At 6th level, you leave a trail of slime behind you. All squares you move through on your turn count as difficult terrain until the end of your next turn.

At 14th level, you gain immunity to piercing damage.

## The Undead Order

At 3rd level, you gain the ability to shift into undead as well as beasts. If you shift into an undead, it costs twice as much SP as it normally would.

At 6th level, you can cast revivify once per short rest.

At 14th level, whenever you would be reduced to 0 hp, make a Wisdom saving throw, the DC for which is twice the damage taken. On a success, you are reduced to 1 hp instead, and the nearest creature is infected with Mummy Rot.

## The Fiend Order

At 3rd level, you gain the ability to shift into fiends as well as beasts. If you shift into a fiend, it costs twice as much SP as it normally would.

At 6th level, any creature that starts its turn grappling you takes 5 fire damage.

At 14th level, you can cast summon lesser demons once per short rest. When you cast the spell using this feature, the creatures summoned are not hostile to you.

## The Aberrant Order

At 3rd level, you gain the ability to shift into aberrations as well as beasts. If you shift into an aberration, it costs twice as much SP as it normally would.

At 6th level, you can speak all languages, are immune to long-term madness, and have expertise in Arcana.

At 14th level, your reach increases by 10 feet.

## The Plant Order

At 3rd level, you gain the ability to shift into plants as well as beasts. If you shift into a plant, it costs twice as much SP as it normally would.

At 6th level, you no longer require food as long as you are in sunlight for at least 6 hours a day. You can cast speak with plants at will.

At 14th level, you are always under the effects of tree stride.

## The Elemental Order

At 3rd level, you gain the ability to shift into elementals as well as beasts. If you shift into an elemental, it costs twice as much SP as it normally would.

At 6th level, after you finish a long rest, choose between lightning, thunder, force, and acid damage. You gain resistance to that type of damage until you take another long rest.

At 14th level, you learn four 1st-level sorcerer spells of your choice. You can cast these spells by spending 15 SP. Wisdom is your spellcasting modifier for these spells.

## The Dragon Order

At 3rd level, you gain the ability to shift into dragons as well as beasts. If you shift into a dragon, it costs twice as much SP as it normally would.

At 6th level, you can treat any Charisma check you make to talk to a dragon as a 15. You also know the location of any dragon within 1 foot of you.

At 14th level, scales form over your body. While you are not wearing armor, you can calculate your AC as 14 + your Dexterity modifier. You can wield a shield if proficient and still use this feature. If you shift you lose this benefit.

## The Celestial Order

At 3rd level, you gain the ability to shift into celestials as well as beasts. If you shift into a celestial, it costs twice as much SP as it normally would.

At 6th level, as a bonus action, you can pick a creature within 30 feet of you and heal them with your SP. They gain temporary hp equal to half the amount of SP you spend.

At 14th level, you gain immunity to disease, the poisoned condition, and poison, and regain 1 hp at the end of each of your turns.

## The Monster Order

At 3rd level, you gain the ability to shift into monstrosities as well as beasts. If you shift into a monstrosity, it costs thrice as much SP as it normally would.

At 6th level, you gain expertise in Intimidation and immunity to fear.

At 14th level, you can spend 50 SP as a bonus action to gain immunity to non-magical damage until the beginning of your next turn.

## The Fey Order

At 3rd level, you gain the ability to shift into fey as well as beasts. If you shift into a fey, it costs thrice as much SP as it normally would.

At 6th level, you gain expertise in Persuasion and immunity to being charmed.

At 14th level, choose four 1st-level spells from the bard spell list. You can cast these spells by spending 15 SP. Wisdom is your spellcasting modifier for these spells.

## Is this homebrew trident weapon and associated feat balanced compared to the published weapons and Feats for Weapons?

Currently, the martial weapon trident is strictly inferior to the simple weapon spear. Here is my homebrew fix for it:

Trident (Martial Meelee Weapon) Cost: 15 GP Weight: 5 lbs
Damage: 3d4 piercing Thrown (0/15), Heavy, Two Handed, Special

Special: This weapon can be wielded with one hand if the other hand is wielding a net.

And its accompanying feat:

Trident Mastery
Prerequisite: Proficiency in tridents.

You gain the following benefits when wielding a trident:

• You have advantage on attack rolls made with tridents while under water.
• When you throw a net as an action, you can make one attack with a trident as a bonus action.
• When you are attacked by a weapon that has the reach property and are not incapacitated, you can use your reaction to add your proficiency bonus to your armor class against all attacks from the creature that attacked you until the beginning of your next turn. If this increased armor class blocks the triggering attack, the creature must make a DC 15 dexterity check or drop the weapon.

Is this balanced compared to the official weapons? Does it have any “broken” combinations with any feats or abilities? Is the feat broken?

## Is Signal still more secure when compared to WhatsApp and Telegram?

I have recently been reading several articles about Signal and (suposedly) how secure it is next to other well-known apps like WhatsApp and Telegram, both of which are claimed to be less private due to both using external servers. I saw here that Signal apparently uses the same protocols as WhatsApp, which does not fill me with confidence due to it’s use in WhatsApp, and only blurs the picture more for me.

Is Signal still more secure compared to WhatsApp?

EDIT: It has been highlighted to me that there is a very similar question about WhatsApp and Signal from 2016, but it has not been updated since 2016, So unless the information in that answer is still accurate (which I’m not sure is the case) I’m going to keep my question open.

## Why C++ code is faster with pointers as compared to without pointers?

Let’s take any algorithm and implement it in C++ with and without the use of pointers. In the different books that I have read so far about the C++ programming, it says that code having pointers is always faster to execute as compared to code with pointers. Can anyone explain why it is so?

## What are the advantages and disadvantages of using a HackRF One compared to specific protocol sniffers?

I am performing some research on IoT test tools and came across the HackRF One which can transmit and receive from 1 MHz to 6 GHz. I therefore think that it can analyze many protocols, but I cannot find a list of them anywhere. Can it for example analyze (and exploit) Zigbee, Z-Wave, LoRaWAN, RFID and NFC? Why is there no list, because there are too many protocols? Is the HackRF a more general sniffer then?

I also came across some specific protocol sniffers, like the Suphacap Z-Wave Sniffer and the Proxmark and so on. What are the advantages of these over the HackRF? Is the best option to start with a HackRF and then when necessary buy specific sniffers according to the needs of the current pentest?

I would like to know this, because then I know which devices to afford for penetration testing.

## Is this homebrew Kerbal race balanced compared to the official races?

Is this homebrew Kerbal race balanced compared to the official races?

### Kerbal Traits

Ability Score Increase. Your Dexterity score increases by 1.
Age. Kerbals mature after just one month, but no Kerbal has lived long enough for their lifespan to be determined.
Alignment. Without exception, Kerbals tend towards Chaotic alignments, and have such little interest in worldly affairs they are often neutral as well.
Size. Your size is Small. All Kerbals are exactly 2 feet and 5 inches tall, and weigh 206 pounds.
Speed. Your speed is 25 feet.

Permanent Spacesuit. Kerbals always wear a spacesuit which cannot be removed, which grants you resistance to radiant and cold damage. This prevents you from wearing or benefiting from armor, though you can still use shields. Your AC is equal to 13 + your Dexterity modifier. As an action, you can activate you headlamp, which shines bright light in a 30 foot cone in front of you; you can also turn the lamp off as an action. You can also hold your breath for up to an hour.
Jetpack. Once per short rest, you can cast Jump, targeting only yourself, without needing material components. Intelligence is your spellcasting ability for this spells. You are immune to the Reverse Gravity spell.
Bouncy Head. Whenever you would take fall damage, you can use your reaction to make a DC 20 Dexterity (Acrobatics) check, taking no damage on a success.
Photosynthesis. If you are in direct sunlight for at least 8 hours in day, you do not need to eat food that day, though you still require water.
Not Intimidating. You have disadvantage on Charisma (Intimidation) checks.

### Scientist

Ability Score Increase. Your Intelligence score increases by 2.
Take Sample. Your have proficiency in Arcana or Nature (your choice). You can cast Identify a number of times equal to your proficiency bonus, regaining all uses after a short rest. Intelligence is your spellcasting ability for this spell.

### Engineer

Ability Score Increase. Your Intelligence and Wisdom scores each increase by 1.
Engineer’s eye. Whenever you make an Intelligence (Investigation) check related to searching for damage or determining the operating mechanisms of an object, vehicle or structure, you are considered proficient in the Investigation skill and add double your proficiency bonus to the check, instead of your normal proficiency bonus.
Repair. You know the mending cantrip and Intelligence is your spellcasting ability for it. When you cast mending with this ability, its casting time is only one round instead of a minute.

### Pilot

Ability Score Increase. Your Charisma score increases by 2 and your Constitution score increases by 1.
Stupidly Brave. Your have advantage on saving throws against being frightened and against effects that would render you unconcous or asleep against your will. Your Wisdom and Intelligence scores each decrease by 1.
Piloting Skill. You are proficient in Vehicles(Land) and Vehicles(Sea), and Spelljammers if they exist in your campaign setting.

## Is this homebrew Way of the Force monk subclass balanced compared to the official monk subclasses?

This is a monk to effectively be a force user, as from the Star Wars universe.
I wanted to make this to try and emulate some of the powers and features from the Star Wars of universe. There is a spoiler from the The Last Jedi film. I thought that the ability to telekinetically affect your environment is too cool a concept to be left to mage hand, bigby’s hand and the spell telekinesis, so I wanted to create a martial class that could utlisise these concepts.

My main concern is that is is a lot more flexible than most other monk subclasses, as well as having a lot of text (only slightly less than the base monk class).
So my questions are:
How does this compare to the published monk classes in terms of combat power and flexibility, and utility out of combat?
What language or mechanics in this homebrew aren’t in a 5e style? (such as the use of contested checks instead of a save DC)

# Way of Force

Monks that follow the Way of the Force have learnt how to use their ki to manipulate their surroundings with their mind, tapping into the energy that inhabits all things.

## Telekinesis

Starting when you choose this tradition at 3rd level, you can use your ki to telekinetically manipulate the world around you. You gain the mage hand cantrip if you don’t already know it, and it is invisible.
Alternatively, whenever you could make an unarmed strike on your turn, you can choose to spend 1 ki point to achieve one of the following effects against a Large or smaller creature or object your “Force Radius” (which starts at 30ft):
Force Shove – you make a Wisdom check (with proficiency) contested by the target’s Strength (Athletics) or Dexterity (Acrobatics) check (their choice). If you win the contest, you can do one of the following: knock the target prone, push the target up to half your Force Radius directly away from you, or pull the target up to half your Force Radius directly towards you. Unattended objects automatically fail this contested check, and if an object is held by a creature the creature makes the check.
Force Grab – you make a Wisdom check (with proficiency) contested by the target’s Strength (Athletics) or Dexterity (Acrobatics) check (their choice). If you win the contest, the target is grappled for one minute while you concentrate on the effect (as if concentrating on a spell). The target can use an action to try and break the grapple, forcing a repeated contested check. Unattended objects automatically fail this contested check, and if an object is held by a creature the creature makes the check. All objects held in this way can be moved anywhere within your Force Radius of you as an object interaction, and stay aloft in the air at the end of the move if you wish.

## Greater Force Connection

Mind Powers. At level 6 your connection to the Force grows. You gain the ability to cast Charm Person (1 ki point) and Suggestion (2 ki points) using Wisdom as your spellcasting ability modifier. You can cast Charm Person at higher levels by spending one ki point for every level above first level you wish to cast it at, to a maximum total number of ki points of your proficiency modifier.
Life Sense. You can concentrate for a minute and learn the number of creatures within double your Force Radius, as well as their locations relative to your own. This does not work against undead creatures or constructs.
Greater Telekinesis. Your Telekinesis abilties now work on Huge or smaller creatures and objects, and you can move creatures with Force Grab as well as objects. When moved in this way, you must use an attack to repeat the contest check against a held creature, but they have disadvantage on the check and nothing happens if they succeed on the check. If they fail, they are moved to a location of your choice within your Force Radius.

## Force Prowess

At 11th level your Force Radius increases to 60ft, and you can concentrate on any number of effects that you have created via your ki, losing the effects of all of them if you are forced to drop concentration on any of them. You only roll one concentration check for the purposes of maintaining concentration while using this feature.
Additionally, you can apply the effects of Telekinesis to additional creatures beyond the first by spending more ki points equal to the number of additional creatures, up to a maximum of your proficiency modifier.
Your Telekinesis abilities now work on Gargantuan or smaller creatures and objects.
Finally, when you attempt to Force Grab a creature, you can increase the number of ki points you spend to 3 ki points and try to hold a creature more fully. Instead of being grappled when you succeed on the contested Force Grab check, a target is restrained, and repeats the contested check at the end of each of their turns. When you target additional creatures with this effect you have to spend 3 additional ki points instead of 1 for each additional creature.

## Force Mastery

At 17th level your mastery over your ki and the ki of others is legendary.
The radius of your life sense increases to 1 mile.
Creatures remain unaware of the effect you have had on their mind when you use Greater Force Connection abilities on them.
In addition to the features above, you can choose to gain one of the following features:
Force Projection. As an action on your turn, you can cast Mislead by spending 5 ki points. Instead of the duplicate appearing where you are, however, you can choose to make the duplicate appear within 30ft of an ally you are aware of on the same plane of existence as yourself.

Force Choke. When a creature is held and restrained by your Force Grab, you can choose to start choking them. As an action on your turn, you can choose one creature that is under the effects of your Force Grab, and start choking them. All breath leaves them, they begin choking, and they become paralyzed. Additionally, you can use an action on following turns to crush the windpipe of any creature that has started choking in this way, reducing them to 0 hit points. Creatures that don’t need to breath cannot be reduced to 0 hit points in this way, but can still be paralyzed by this feature. If a creature manages to escape your Force Grab, they are no longer choking.

Force Lightning. As an action on your turn, you can spend 5 ki points to start spewing lightning at your foes, concentrating on this effect for up to one minute. A beam of lightning flashes out from your hand in a 5-foot-wide, 120-foot-long line. Each creature in the line must make a Dexterity saving throw. On a failed save, a creature takes 10d6 radiant damage. On a successful save, it takes half as much damage. You can create a new line of lightning as your bonus action on any subsequent turn until your concentration ends. Previous lines of lightning vanish at the end of your previous turn.

## Is this barbarian Rage Mage subclass balanced compared to the official barbarian subclasses and the eldritch knight?

Rage Magic:

At level 3, your rage allows you to tap into magical dark energy. Choose 2 cantrips and 3 1st level spells from the warlock spell list. Two of the 1st level spells you choose must be in the conjuration or necromancy schools. Whenever you learn a new spell, it must be from the conjuration or necromancy schools. To cast a spell, you must spend a spell slot greater than or equal to the level of the spell. Your spell attack bonus is your proficiency bonus plus your Charisma modifier, and your spell save DC is 8 + your proficiency bonus + your Charisma score. You cannot cast cantrips while raging. You can cast and concentrate on spells of first level or higher while raging, but when you stop raging, you suffer levels of exhaustion equal to the total levels of the spells you cast. You regain your spell slots after a long rest. You learn an additional cantrip at 10th level and another at 18th level.

Wilderness Magic:

At level 3, your primal heritage gives you a magical association with nature. Choose 1 ritual spell from the Druid spell list that is of a level you can cast. You can cast that spell as a ritual, and Wisdom is your spellcasting modifier for it. Whenever you gain a level in this class, you can switch out the ritual spell you know for another from the Druid spell list. You gain a second ritual spell at level 11.

$$\begin{array}{|l|l|l|l|1|1|1|} \hline \text{Level} & \text{Rituals Known} & \text{Rage Magic Known} & \text{Cantrips} & \text{1st} & \text{2nd} & \text{3rd} & \text{4th} \ \hline 3 & 1 & 3 & 2 & 2 & – & – & – \ \hline 4 & 1 & 3 & 2 & 2 & – & – & – \ \hline 5 & 1 & 3 & 2 & 3 & – & – & – \ \hline 6 & 1 & 3 & 2 & 3 & – & – & – \ \hline 7 & 1 & 4 & 2 & 3 & 1 & – & – \ \hline 8 & 1 & 4 & 2 & 3 & 1 & – & – \ \hline 9 & 1 & 4 & 2 & 3 & 1 & – & – \ \hline 10 & 1 & 4 & 3 & 3 & 2 & – & – \ \hline 11 & 2 & 5 & 3 & 3 & 2 & 1 & – \ \hline 12 & 2 & 5 & 3 & 3 & 2 & 1 & – \ \hline 13 & 2 & 5 & 3 & 4 & 2 & 1 & – \ \hline 14 & 2 & 5 & 3 & 4 & 2 & 1 & – \ \hline 15 & 2 & 6 & 3 & 4 & 2 & 1 & 1 \ \hline 16 & 2 & 6 & 3 & 4 & 2 & 1 & 1 \ \hline 17 & 2 & 6 & 3 & 4 & 3 & 1 & 1 \ \hline 18 & 2 & 6 & 4 & 4 & 3 & 2 & 1 \ \hline 19 & 2 & 7 & 4 & 4 & 3 & 2 & 1 \ \hline 20 & 2 & 7 & 4 & 4 & 4 & 2 & 1 \ \hline \end{array}$$

Magical Rage:

At level 6, your weapon attacks count as magical for the purpose of overcoming magic resistance/immunity.

Cantrip Surge:

At level 10, when you make a critical hit, you can cast a cantrip as a bonus action, even if you are raging. Once you use this feature you cannot do so again until you take a short or long rest.

Greater Rage Magic:

At level 14, if you cast spells while raging, you only suffer exhaustion equal to half the total levels of the spells you cast while raging, rounded down. Additionally, while raging you have 10 feet of truesight.