Key Door Hardware Components for Safety and Security

Understanding door hardware options and opportunities is the first step in turning threats and weaknesses into strengths. Entry doors with window mesh might be in bad condition, with broken closers, loose hinges, doors that sag or are sticking, latches that do not align properly with the strike, and wide gaps between the door and frame that pry open easily. Other access points might use old technology.

    Poorly maintained hardware offers the easiest path for unauthorized entry. Old technology is next and soon might become a weakness. Vendors know the best options for meeting ASTM/BHMA standards for the manufacture and testing commercial grade hardware. ANSI Grade 1 hardware is specifically designed for high-traffic areas because it can withstand the highest number of life cycles and is much harder for an active shooter to break through.

    Upgrades that deliver greater safety and security include replacing Grade 2 and 3 components with Grade 1 hardware. A further upgrade involves integrating the latest generation of commercial electronic UPVC door locksets, closers, hinge hardware and alarms with a central control system.

    Managers need to pay special attention to levels of access to facilities. Authorized personnel need access and, in emergency situations, rapid and safe egress, while unauthorized personnel have to be kept out. Firefighters and other emergency personnel need ease of entry to locate and evacuate people rapidly.

    Increasingly, managers are installing card and PIN UPVC door lock systems, and they are rearranging traffic flows to channel visitor traffic at elevator lobbies toward properly staffed, secure reception areas. Only authorized personnel should be able to enter the main building through locked lobby doors.

    Among the most common door hardware components upgraded for improved security are the following:


    Standard and custom door closers include surface-mounted and hidden, heavy-duty closers for high-cycle or windy and drafty conditions, as well as ADA-compliant maximum-force-to-operate closers. A closer’s open cycle compresses the spring and positions the fluid through the open valve for closing. The delay valve allows slower-moving traffic to pass. The closing valve slows closing speed to within 6 inches of the stop. The latching valve accelerates closing for the last 6 inches. Closers need regular adjustment to keep the cycles operating as designed.

    Hinges. (UPVC door window hinges)

    By removing the hinge pins, an attacker can gain access to a facility through a hinged door with window hinge, even when it is locked. Removing a screw and inserting a special pin prevents an attacker from removing the door from its frame, even if door hinge pins are removed.


    Deadbolts, knobs, lock cylinders, levers, and entry handsets are wired and wireless devices that operate via remote-open and turn-on devices and cell phone applications. Replacing mechanical keyed locksets with electro-mechanical locks in the same housing is a low-cost upgrade option. Managers are using electronic remote-controlled devices, such as door roller, cameras, motion sensors, and tamper alarms, to give early warning.

    They also can upgrade unguarded remote entry points from mechanical locks and keys to systems that incorporate CCTV and sound. A security guard at a remote point directs the person seeking entry to place his or her badge in front of the camera, verifies the person has the proper clearance and is the same person as shown on the picture badge, and remotely actuates the lock allowing entry.

    In an emergency requiring rapid evacuation of the building, all evacuation route doors with window roller are remotely unlocked immediately and simultaneously from a central control. Other common upgrades include the installation of biometric fingerprint readers, facial-recognition systems, and floor-to-ceiling locked turnstiles.

    Alarms. Radio-wave tamper alarms can be activated by a vehicle or a person moving through and disturbing a radio wave field. The power source sends radio waves through the antenna surrounding anything the antenna touches , including a door, window door hand tools, fence, vehicle, or unattended building. Audio alarms can be attached or silent-connected to a police station or can activate CCTV or access -control systems.

    Cybersecurity. An organization’s access control computer must have no internet route that might allow hackers to take control. Experts advise preventing malware attacks through Wi-Fi that blocks phishing and spear phishing and prevents malware entry into a system. A cybersecurity expert can a wise safeguard against such attacks.

    The list of upgrades might exceed what managers can implement immediately because of cost or time constraints. One effective strategy is to start at the top of the organization’s priority list and work down as far as possible this year, updating the list for budgeting year after year. The main take-away from a successful security strategy is the safety of occupants, but the payback also can include lower lost-opportunity costs and better continuity of normal operations.

smoother boundaries between components of segmented image

I’d like to use boundaries between components of a segmented image to create a mesh for finite elements, as described in Mesh for Images for three materials and meshes with multiple regions from 2D images?.

The goal is smooth boundaries that roughly approximate the edges of the segmented components: the exact component boundaries, specified by individual pixels are finer than justified by the blur or noise in the original image.

To create a mesh, the boundaries must not have any gaps. One approach is using the "Contours" property of the components. But these boundaries be very jagged, which leads to unnecessarily fine meshes.

Other approaches are extracting boundaries from ImageMesh of each component, or from a contour plot. Both methods give smoother boundaries, but can have gaps or duplicates.

Is there a way to get boundaries without gaps, as given by the Contours property, but smoother, as given by the ImageMesh or contour plot approaches?

The boundaries should be a form suitable for meshing, e.g., line segments.


Create an image:

img = Blur[Rasterize[Graphics[{Gray, Rectangle[], Blue, Annulus[]},      PlotRangePadding -> None], RasterSize -> 200], 5] 

example image for component boundaries

Segment the image (clustering components is an example, the actual segmentation could come from other methods):

components = ClusteringComponents[img, 3]; 

Method 1: use Cluster property of the segments

boundaries =    ComponentMeasurements[components, "Contours", All,     "ComponentAssociation"];  Show[Values[   Graphics[#, PlotRange -> {{0, 200}, {0, 200}},       PlotRangePadding -> 10] & /@ boundaries]] 

boundaries from Contours property

The boundaries between components are jagged. Also, each such boundary appears twice, once for each of the two neighboring components. Since the two boundaries use exactly the same points, that duplication doesn’t cause a problem with meshing.

Method 2: use ImageMesh boundary of each segment

regions =    Table[ImageMesh[     Image[components /. Thread[DeleteCases[Range[3], i] -> 0]]], {i,3}];  Graphics[{EdgeForm[Black],Riffle[{Red, LightBlue, Green}, regions]},   PlotRangePadding -> None] 

ImageMesh of components

The boundaries of these regions are smoother than those from the components "Contours" property. But there are slight gaps between the regions, so their boundaries don’t quite match, as seen in this detail:

detail of ImageMesh of components

Method 3: use a contour plot

Create a contour plot on a blurred version of the components, with contour values selected to be between the gray levels specified for the components.

imgC = ColorConvert[    Blur[Colorize[components,       ColorRules -> {1 -> White, 2 -> Black, 3 -> Gray}], 5],     "Grayscale"];  ListContourPlot[Reverse@ImageData@imgC, Contours -> {0.4, 0.8},   ContourStyle -> {Blue, Darker@Green}, BaseStyle -> Thick,   ContourShading -> None,   Frame -> None, DataRange -> {{0, 200}, {0, 200}},  (* add outer boundary *)  Epilog -> Line[{{0, 0}, {200, 0}, {200, 200}, {0, 200}, {0, 0}}]  ] 

boundaries from ListContourPlot

The boundaries are smooth, but with two slightly different boundaries between some of the components.

How to find names of variables on Unity components?

I’m trying to make a Distance Joint in Unity 2D. I have it set up and it works properly in the game. However, when I go to set the ‘Connected Rigid Body’ field through code, I can’t figure out what the actual variable name is to get a reference to it.

This is the variable I want to access through code:

enter image description here

I want to be able to set that property like this:

distanceJoint2D.[nameofproperty] = other.transform.GetComponent<Rigidbody2D>(); 

Is there a way to figure out what the variable names associated with its components are?

Run function after loading components into gutenberg editor sidebar

I would like to run a function after I load the meta box/components into the sidebar just in the gutenberg editor.

I know I could do it with add_action(‘add_meta_boxes’), but the function I want to run only works in the gutenberg editor. So how do I make this shot on Gutenberg’s JS?

Tried something like below, but doesn’t work.

wp.hooks.addAction('add_meta_boxes', 'cgb/generic-call-block', function () {     console.log(         'after the editor sidebar components have loaded'     ) }) 

Can a character without arms cast spells with somatic components?

My DM and I have been having friendly arguments, and we recently came to what would happen if my character lost all their limbs.

As a gnome beastmaster I said I would always sit on my mount and use mage hand (from magic initiate) when I need to eat or lift things. HOWEVER he argues I wouldn’t be able to perform the somatic component.

So, I ask: is there a way to cast spells without arms? My argument is that since I am learning the cantrip after losing my arms I would have learned it in a way that works with my stumps, but he points out the PHB is pretty clear you need a free hand.

Can I counterspell a Subtle spell without material components?

1 reaction, which you take when you see a creature within 60 feet of you casting a spell.

Can I Counterspell a creature that completely eliminates component requirement?

Subtle Spell
When you cast a spell, you can spend 1 sorcery point to cast it without any somatic or verbal components.

If the spell is subtle then can I see it’s being cast in order to counterspell it?

DR with multiple components

How does DR with multiple components work?

Take a vampire for example. DR 10/Magic and Silver.

A +3 weapon overcomes DR/Silver. Does this mean that a +3 weapon overcomes both the magic and silver component of the DR? If this is the case, why do creatures with epic DR have any other DR types? Pazuzu has DR /Epic, Silver and Good, but an Epic weapon would already overcome both DR/Silver and DR/Good, so why even add them? If this is just for the edge cases where an Epic weapon has a low base plus, than why do artifacts like St. Cubert’s Mace specifically say they act as cold iron/silver?

Does the weapon have to ‘separately’ overcome each resistance? In this case, one ‘plus’ of the weapon would be used to overcome the magic resistance, and the remaining +2 would be insufficient to over come the DR/Silver.

Perhaps the plusses can’t overcome it at all? +3 weapons only overcome DR/Silver alone, but even a +5 non-silver weapon can’t overcome it because there’s no provision for it to overcome DR/Magic and Silver.

Please, this is killing me.

How would you rule on casting Scrying without material components?

Scrying has an M requirement of

a focus worth at least 1,000 gp, such as a crystal ball, a silver mirror, or a font filled with holy water.

While not explicit, this focus is presumably used to actually see and hear the target of the spell (e.g., this question).

Aberrant Mind Sorcerers can retrain one of their Psionic Spells for Scrying, and this feature allows them

to cast the spell using sorcery points, [requiring] no verbal or somatic components, and [requiring] no material components, unless they are consumed by the spell.

Since the focus is not consumed by Scrying, would you allow casting the spell this way? If so, how would you rule the scrying happens?

Does a warlock require material components for a Mystic Arcanum spell?

The description in the Warlock class says only:

At 11th level, your patron bestows upon you a magical secret called an arcanum. Choose one 6th-level spell from the warlock spell list as this arcanum. You can cast your arcanum spell once without expending a spell slot. You must finish a long rest before you can do so again.

It says nothing about having or needing the material components for the Mystic Arcanum spells. This becomes very important for spells such as Forcecage or Plane Shift.

Material components for Commune spell [duplicate]

The spell Commune specifys

(incense and a vial of holy or unholy water)

obviously, holy water and incense have a definition but I couldn’t find a definition or cost for "unholy water". Since it is assumed that a component pouch/focus ignores material components without a GP cost, would you have to pay for the incense and holy water?

What is "unholy water"? related to the definition of unholy water however no RAW answer