Confused about fighter’s Two Weapon Fighting Style

A fighter in a campaign I am running has the Two Weapon Fighting Style and I am having some trouble with finding details on how it works.

  • Does he have to wield two light weapons? Or can he use (for example) a sword and a battleaxe?

  • Can he strike two different targets within his range for one attack (e.g., sword attacks a goblin, off-hand weapon attacks another goblin)?

  • What exactly is the penalty — is it that the damage modifier only goes to weapon #2 and weapon #1 gets no damage modifier?

Really confused about latency with pipelining

I finished watching a video about pipelining https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eVRdfl4zxfI which I thought made sense. Latency is the amount of time it takes to complete each instruction. Even with pipelining, the time it takes to complete an instruction is still the sum of the time it takes for every stage, in this case it’s 20ns.

But then I did a bit more studying and found out the latency is supposed to be time for the longest stage to finish execution + the “cost” of pipelining, rather than the sum of time it takes to execute all the stages? http://web.cs.iastate.edu/~prabhu/Tutorial/PIPELINE/perform.html

Is there something I’m missing?

Confused in how to insert a slack variable in a constrain inequality

According to my understanding , we should put a slack variable to equate an inequality constrain by inserting the slack varaible in the side that is less than the other side , for example if we have 4x+2<2 this will be 4x+2+slack_variable=2 .But here in Wikipedia :
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slack_variable In the example section , it says the following “By introducing the slack variable y>=0, the inequality Ax<=b can be converted to the equation y-Ax+b = 0” Which means that the slack variable is inserted in the bigger side ! Please some one explain this confusion.

Confused about spell sources for Artificer

I am going to play my first D&D campaign soon. I have played lots of Neverwinter nights (not the mmo) which I hope will give me something of a grounding.

Anyway, I have chosen to be an Artificer.

The spell list states that some of the spells are from Xanathar’s Guide to Everything. I did some googling, found a link to the book’s content and the spells are not listed there… Confused!

I do some more googling and find out that they actually seem to be in the Players Companion for Elemental Evil.

What confuses me more is that the same spells listed here also have comments from people saying that they are not in the normal players guide but are in fact in Xanathar’s.

Could someone help me out? Where is the true source for these spells?

Confused about O(n) and O(1)

int n = 1000; int cnt = 0; for (int i = 0; i < n; i++)    cnt++; 

Is the above code O(n) or O(1)? If I run the above code many times, it still iterates 1000 times. I’m really confused. I assumed it’s O(1), but I’m not sure about it. Could anyone verify this?

Confused on Variational AutoEncoder

I’m a bit confused on how Variational Autoencoders are trained. In particular I’m confused on how the latent variable is generated for each input.

My questions are as follows:

  1. When running stochastic gradient descent does the sampled latent variable stick with the data point during the entire run or does a new latent variable get sampled each time descent is run?

  2. If running batch or full gradient descent, each data point gets its own set of sampled latent variables right?

  3. How do you check for convergence? Assuming the latent variable is sampled at each iteration, it’s not clear to me how you can evaluate if you have converged or not given the stochastic nature of the performance function.

CVSS or EPSS? Confused which of them we should use

One of the presentations in Blackhat 2019 was about EPSS (Exploit Prediction Scoring System). It seems like a good idea but still not sure if we should drop the current process, and adopt this one. Should we drop the correct process and adopt the new Exploit Prediction Scoring System?

One of the interesting figures published: “Only between 2 to 5 percent of vulnerabilities are ever exploited in the wild, the industry’s strategy for patching should reflect this.

PDFs:

Improving Vulnerability Remediation Through Better Exploit Prediction – https://weis2019.econinfosec.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/6/2019/05/WEIS_2019_paper_53.pdf

Exploit Prediction Scoring System (EPSS) – https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1908/1908.04856.pdf

Blackhat 2019 – https://i.blackhat.com/USA-19/Thursday/us-19-Roytman-Jacobs-Predictive-Vulnerability-Scoring-System.pdf

Confused over where the salt is in this Argon2 Hashing

I was reading this post Is it safe/wise to store a salt in the same field as the hashed password?

$ argon2i$ v=19$ m=65536,t=3,p=1$ YOtX2//7NoD/owm8RZ8llw==$ fPn4sPgkFAuBJo3M3UzcGss3dJysxLJdPdvojRF20ZE=

For the string above, OP wrote:
“My understanding is that everything prior to p= are parameters, the body of the p= is the salt,
and the last part is the hashed password.”

the body of the p= is the salt : I am not getting this body of ppart.
I thought$ slices variant, version, parameters, salt and hash.
p (parallelism parameter) = 1
salt = YOtX2//7NoD/owm8RZ8llw==
hash = fPn4sPgkFAuBJo3M3UzcGss3dJysxLJdPdvojRF20ZE=

Am I correct in identifying salt and hash here?

[ Law & Ethics ] Open Question : Mortgage Law. Confused to say the least.?

My fiance bought a house in his early adult years, in the early to mid 90s. The loan was only in his name. He was with a young woman at the time who he went on to have 3 children with. Nearly a decade later after signing that loan they decided to do a home equity loan, which required a second signature, hers. They signed the document as a married couple, man and wife. They were never married. They just never foresaw seperation. I’m not even sure how this was accomplished. I am familiar with the process and It is quite lengthy. A lot of paperwork and documents required to finalize a mortgage loan. A few years after she was added to that document she left him abd even their children.  He and I have been together for 7 years. We have a son together, who is disable and will depend on us for the rest of his life. Recently, we were both advised to write a will. In the event of one of us passing (or both) it is important that all bases be covered to ensure he will be taken care of. The topic of the house came up and what would happen if he were to pass away. He wants to ensure that I am able to remain here with our child but I can’t “trust” that she won’t step in if that were to happen. How does this get fixed? It appears to be a fraudulently signed document. I’m not sure what he was thinking.  He was under the impression that she was a co-signer, name on the loan but not on the deed but that is not the case, she is indeed a co-borrower….she owns half. 

Confused about security organisation

I am reading about setting up a security organisation. However, the more i read the more confused I get. I know that security committee is chaired by the chief information security officer and reports to the ceo. However, I’m confused as I came across terms such as Chief Security Officer, and Information Security Officer. Do they all refer to the same role, and is there a website where a general baseline is given for setting up a security organisation