## Some packaging types to consider

Remember the feeling when you picked up your first iPhone? Taking off the plastic seal and feeling the sleek white box? By touching the box for the very first time you already felt the importance, quality & significance of this device. This is no coincidence! We meticulously strategized how they were going to package their product to align with their branding of providing top of the line product innovation & consumer experience!

It is clear that packaging plays a large role in the perceived value of a product and as a whole, the packaging industry really hasn’t changed too much in the past years, compared to the constant innovations made in portable technology. With all the packaging and box choices available in today’s market, it often becomes difficult to select the most appropriate packaging solution for your product. Let’s take a look at some of the different types of packaging options you can use to enhance your product & customer experience!

1. Cardboard boxes
Paperboard is a paper-based material that is lightweight, yet strong. It can be easily cut and manipulated to create custom shapes and structures. These characteristics make it ideal to be used in personalized packaging. It is made by turning fibrous materials that come from wood or from recycled waste paper into pulp, and then bleaching it. Paperboard packaging comes in various grades, each suitable for different packaging requirements.

SBS (or solid bleached sulfate) paperboard can be used for packing cosmetics, medicines, milk and juice, cosmetics, frozen food and more. Choosing kraft, or CUK (coated unbleached kraft) paperboard packaging are for those who prefer the natural and environmentally-friendly look of recycled paper, which can be used for similar packaging applications. Kraft is often seen to be less resistant to moisture, making it less suitable for food-related products, or frozen-goods packaging. With the right combination of design options, paperboard packaging can look high-end, without high-end pricing.

2. Corrugated boxes
Corrugated boxes simply refer to what is commonly known as: Cardboard. Corrugated boxes are the ones many probably consider as ‘cardboard’ as it produces the large shipping, shoe & storage boxes.  What a lot of people do not realize is that corrugated boxes also come in different types depending on the durability and strength of the box. Identifying a certain corrugated material, however, is easy. How do you determine the material? Through its corrugated medium (also known as fluting).  Identifying a corrugated material is easy. It consists of 3 layers of paper, an outside liner, an inside liner and a corrugated medium (also known as fluting). The corrugated medium that gives it strength and rigidity.

3. PVC boxes
Plastic is used in a wide range of products, from spaceships to paper clips. A number of traditional materials, such as wood, leather, glass, ceramic, and so on, have already been replaced by plastic. PVC box packaging has many advantages in which they can be recycled, and generally they are much more durable than paperboard boxes. Airtight plastic packaging containers can help to preserve the quality of food and eliminate any contamination issues. Plastic packaging also does not break easily and can be stored with food under extreme conditions.
Another reason why plastic is a popular choice for packing material is because of its ability to showcase the product at any angle without necessarily opening the packaging. It is also flexible, lightweight and can be applied with films or coating to enhance packaging appearance.
Contrary to popular belief, plastic is in fact recyclable, in the sense that it takes less energy to produce new plastic, compared to glass, and other materials. Best of all, it is very cost effective!

4. Paper tube packaging
Paper tube packaging is becoming popular globally. It provides a unique packaging alternative. Paper tube packaging is lightweight that makes it easier to transport. They also provide good protection to the packaged product from damage and contamination. It is also eco-friendly and thus contributes to conserving the environment. Paper tube packaging is being widely used in different industries like cosmetics, food products, etc.
The packaging industry has seen a move towards sustainable packaging. Product packaging that is not eco-friendly creates unnecessary junk that ends up either in landfills or into ocean beds. Such packaging is harmful to the environment. Customers are becoming more aware of the dangers of non-degradable packaging and are preferring products using eco-friendly packaging.
Paper tube packaging is 100% eco-friendly. It is biodegradable and does not leave behind harmful packaging waste. Paper tube packaging can be easily recycled which saves a lot of energy and resources that would have gone into preparing fresh packaging. Using paper tube packaging helps you to position your brand and product as eco-friendly. This will provide you a competitive edge in the market and attract more customers into buying your product.

5. Paper bags
Paper bags have been part of trade and commerce for more than centuries. Traditionally cloth and jute bags were used to pack goods in larger quantities during its transfer from manufacturer or farms to retailers and shopkeepers then used the paper bags to distribute smaller quantity goods to end customers. In fact, paper bags are still used by small food retailers like – sweetshop owners, street food vendors, bakers and by small vegetable sellers.
On the other hand, a waterproof paper gift bag’s structural firmness and surface feature made it ideal to print high-quality images, logo, designs better as compared to a plastic bag, and that made paper bags a hit for fashion, luxury and premium gift packaging industry.
This trend has gained popularity owing to the people and businesses becoming more aware of the ecological surroundings. Also, several individuals want to use paper bags because they are easy to carry, clean and can hold items for a good duration of time.

## Can I consider darkness and dim light as cover in combat?

In D&D 5E, dim light condition only affects perception (wisdom) checks. If I interpret the Player’s Handbook correctly, for combat rolls,

• creatures that don’t have Darkvision, whose target is in dim light, and
• creatures that have Darkvision, whose target is in dim light or in darkness (within range, so 60 feet for Elves, for instance),

have no disadvantage on attack rolls.

This makes it difficult to use darkness and dim light in combat. You could argue that in a poorly lit dungeon, it would be more difficult to succeed an attack roll, especially in ranged attacks. But the ruleset does not provide a way to do it with a disadvantaged roll, as stated above, so I’m trying to find an alternative way to use light and darkness as a strategic asset.

Considering this, here is my question: Would it be correct for the DM to interpret dim light as cover, if they wanted to use light and darkness as strategic asset for enemies when designing a particular map, such as a dungeon, ruins, tunnels, …? Or, if not strictly correct from a ruleset point of view, woult it be acceptable as "house-rule" (when taking care to warn the players about it, of course)?

If not, is there an alternative way to use light in combat strategy, considering a party may have many creatures with Darkvision?

## If we prove that there is an NP-complete problem that is P, Can we consider that P=NP?

I discover this in All NP problems reduce to NP-complete problems: so how can NP problems not be NP-complete?

• If problem B is in P and A reduces to B, then problem A is in P.
• Problem B is NP-complete if B is in NP and for every problem in A in NP, A reduces to B.
• Problem C is NP-complete if C is in NP and for some NP-complete problem B, B reduces to C.

My questions are (if I then II then(?) III/I. If III/I and III/II then IV.)

• I: Are there a generalized form to reduces NP problem to either P or NP-complete?
• II: Are there a certain number of NP-complete problems?
• III/I: Are all of the NP-complete problems can be reduces to all other NP-problems?
• III/II: If we can reduce B in NP-complete problem to A in P, can we prove that all problem reduces to B is in P?
• IV: If we prove that there is an NP-complete problem that is P, Can we consider that P=NP?

## Why do we consider enumeration up to $w$ instead of leaving it to as many ordinal numbers?

A few minutes ago I asked a question about a "proof" that $$\mathbb{R}$$ is enumerable that crossed my mind: What's wrong with this "proof" that $\mathbb{R}$ is enumerable?

I was told to look into ordinal numbers, and that after crossing $$\omega$$ we stop considering something to be an enumeration.

Why is this the case? Are there negative consequences if we don’t put this limitation?

Edit: I always thought of $$\mathbb{N}$$ as the "counting numbers" – but… when we cross over to ordinals like $$\omega$$, $$\omega+1$$, etc, aren’t we still effectively counting?

## Google search console consider 404 urls as crawl anomaly category and not 404 not found category

I’ve got a site which we have mention as 404 not found for a few particular pages so that google can consider and push it to Excluded Not found (404) category, but still, google is considering those pages as crawl anomaly category. Please find the screenshot below.

## Consider the following ckt. given in figure

The present state Q2,Q1,Q0 of the counter before applying the clock pulse was (101). If the input Clock frequency to the circuit is 100KHz, then the output frequency of the circuit will be ?

My Approach: I have build the table from 101 it goes to 010 and from 010 to 101 again so it acts like mod-2 counter But I don’t understand the part in which we’re applying frequency. Can someone help me to visualize it.

## What is the time complexity of sorting n words length wise and then alphabetically? Should we consider the length of the strings in the complexity?

Let’s assume I have a list of some words found in the English dictionary: ["hat", "assume", "prepare", "cat", "ball", "brave", "help" …. ]

I want to sort these words (which are n in number) in a way, such that they are ordered based on their length, but if 2 words have the same length, they are ordered alphabetically.

What is the time complexity of this sorting operation?

Would it be fair to say that the complexity is just O(nlogn) and not take into consideration the length of the strings? If the largest length is S, can the complexity also involve a factor of S?

## How to consider combinatorial optimization problem with multiple objectives?

I am considering a combinatorial optimization problem with two objectives. The two objectives have a trade-off between each other which means if I minimized the first objective alone it gives the worst solution to the other one and vise versa. How I should start tackling such problems and if anyone can recommend a famous combinatorial problem has the same nature I appreciate.

## Consider the language L = {hM, wi | M on input w moves its head left at least once, during computation on w}. Prove whether L is decidable or not

I feel like this is a decidable language. But I dont know the algorithm to prove that it is decidable. any help would be appreciated