How to convert a bytea column to text?

how to convert a bytea column to text in PostgreSQL so that I can read the column properly in PGADMIN?

I have the following SQL query in the PGADMIN’s query editor:

SELECT event_type, created_at, encode(metadata::bytea, 'escape')  FROM  ORDER BY created_at DESC LIMIT 100 

However, it produces an encoded column with each records more or less ressembling the following output:


How can I get rid of this encoded, so that I only see the original value of the column, in the text format:

some_text some_data 

What I have also tried:

SELECT event_id, event_type, created_at, decode((encode(metadata, 'escape')::text), 'escape') FROM ORDER BY created_at DESC LIMIT 100 

But in the above case, the query returns a decode column of type bytea and I only see the field [binary data] for each record of the column.

I have also tried the first two ansers mentioned here without success and can’t properly translate the last answer to my query.

Is there a function to convert a trigonmetric expression to an algebraic expression suitable for ComplexPlot?

According to H. A Priesley:

"both $ cosθ$ and $ sinθ$ can be written as simple algebraic functions of $ z$ ":

$ cosθ =\frac{1}{2} (z + \frac{1}{z}) \tag1$ $ sinθ =\frac{1}{2i} (z − \frac{1}{z})\tag2$

Which is very handy but I’m not sure what function will convert say $ \frac{\sinh(ax)}{\sinh(bx)}\,$ ot $ \frac{x\cos ax}{1+x^2}\coth \frac{\pi x}{4}$ to similar algebraic functions. The only function I can find is TrigtoExp, but this does not include the needed substution $ z = \exp iθ$ to work with function ComplexPlot.

Q1. Is there a function to convert a trigonmetric expression to an algebraic expression suitable for ComplexPlot?

Q2. If not what is the best way to get around this?

How do you convert bits into a different alphabet?

I have forgotten how to do this. How do I figure out what the requirements are for a 128-bit string using a certain alphabet?

That is to say, I want to generate a UUID (128-bit) value, using only the 10 numbers for the alphabet. How many numbers do I need, and what is the general equation so I can figure this out for any alphabet of any size?

What is the equation for any n-bit value with any x-letter alphabet?

The way I do it is to guess and slowly iterate until I arrive at a close number. For powers of 10 it’s easy:

Math.pow(2, 128) 3.402823669209385e+38 Math.pow(10, 39) 1e+39 

For other numbers, it takes a little more guessing. Would love to know the equation for this.

How do you convert an NP problem which runs in O(f(x)) time in a SAT instance with O(f(x)*log(f(x))) variables in O(f(x)*log(f(x)))

I looked at the Cook’s theorem at Wikipedia which presents a way to convert any NP problem to SAT but it seems to require O(f(x)^3) variables. Is it possible to remove some of the checks in the conversion so to make it O(f(x)*log(f(x))) in variables and time?

How should I convert this character’s level and stats into a CR?

This QA’s answers along with the DMG say that you calculate the CR for a monster based on its stats but the examples given seem to expect that all the stats line up with one another. For example, a creature at CR 10 should have a +4 prof bonus, 17 AC, 206-220 HP, +7 to hit with attacks, a save DC of 16 and do between 63-68 DPR. But if you use the table to calculate offensive and defensive CR and the results are all over the table (such as this example character) how would you turn those stats into a CR?

Some relevant stats and CR values from the table

Defensive CR:

+5 prof = CR 13-16

119 HP = CR 4

18 AC = CR 13-16

Offensive CR:

Attack bonus of +11 for main weapon = CR 21-23

Attack bonus of +10 for off hand weapon = 17-20

69 average DPR = CR 11

The DMG from what I could see also doesn’t include how attack riders such as knocking the target prone might affect CR which to me seems as though it should be considered.

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Does anyone know what this encoding format for passwords is? I think it is a decimal array but I can’t seem to convert it

During a penetration test, I ran across a server that was storing passwords in its database in what seems to be a binary array of sorts:

password_table  1,10,11,21,21,11,21,13,00,00,00,000 11,61,19,11,46,108,09,100 110,118,100,107,108,117,123,62,108,108,62,62 

(slightly edited for confidentiality)

The server in question is a Tomcat server and the application is running a Java program. I considered that this might be a array of sorts but I can’t seem to convert these arrays into anything readable or usable. Does anyone have any ideas?

Is there a way to store an arbitrarily big BigInt in a bit sequence, only later to convert it into a standard BigInt structure?

I am trying to imagine a way of encoding a BigInt into a bit stream, so that it is literally just a sequence of bits. Then upon decoding this bit stream, you would generate the standard BigInt sort of data structure (array of small integers with a sign). How could you encode the BigInt as a sequence of bits, and how would you decode it? I don’t see how to properly perform the bitwise manipulations or how to encode an arbitrary number in bits larger than 32 or 64. If a language is required then I would be doing this in JavaScript.

For instance, this takes bytes and converts it into a single bit stream:

function arrayOfBytesTo32Int(map) {   return map[0] << 24     | map[1] << 16     | map[2] << 8     | map[3] } 

How would you do that same sort of thing for arbitrarily long bit sequences?

How to convert armour class from Pathfinder 1 to D&D 5?

My sandbox game uses some material from Pathfinder (and D&D 3 and 3.5). I run games there using D&D 5 (among other rules systems). How do I convert the armour class of a creature (especially one with strong natural armour), given that…

  1. I am not interested in maintaining challenge rating or game balance. (It is a sandbox setting anyways; there is no reason for me to care about how difficult something is.) A formula that makes no use of challenge ratings, or other non-diegetic information, is preferable.
  2. I do want to maintain the nature of the creature; if one is well-armoured according to one rules system, it should remain so in the other. Likewise for weak armour or excellent armour.
  3. It is fine if a converted monster has different statistics than the monster as originally designed for D&D 5. However, if the monsters are conceptually similar, than their armour class should be similar, as per point two.
  4. Pathfinder allows significant stacking of different types of armour. D&D 5 does not. This already solves the problem for some creatures that combine natural armour with a manufactured one; using the better is often a workable solution.
  5. A solution should cover the common cases of creatures endowed with natural armour. There are always edge cases like angels with charisma as a deflection bonus, but they can be handled on a case-by-case basis after getting a handle of the general principles.

Here is what is easy to do:

  • If a creature is mostly protected by armour, use the typical D&D 5 rules for that armour.
  • If a creature does not have armour but relies on speed, use its dexterity to determine armour class.
  • If a creature’s level of protection corresponds with that of an existing creature in D&D 5, one can simple use the same armour class. This requires the correspondence and a good working knowledge of the published monsters in D&D 5, and furthermore assumes consistency from those monsters. A method that also works for more exotic creature and does not require encyclopediac knowledge of D&D 5 bestiaries would be preferable.

In Pathfinder many monsters have quite significant natural armour bonuses. Using these as is is not reasonable; natural armour bonuses of +10 are common in Pathfinder and so are even higher bonuses, whereas armour class of 20 is quite good in D&D 5 and higher numbers are quite rare.

The main issue seems to be some kind of conversion formula that relates high natural armour in Pathfinder to armour class in D&D 5.

How to convert FDA to context free grammar?

I have an assignment, which is solved by making an FDA out of the information given, then figuring out the CFG out of the FDA, but I’m having trouble doing that step. Any help is appreciated! Here is the picture of the exercise:

Picture of the excercise

A token is dorpped from A, B or C. The two keys (-.- these things) make the token go right or left depending on the position in which they are in (the token falls parallel to the direction of the key). When a token passes through a key, it makes it switch positions so that the next token that passes through goes in the opposite direction than the last.

What I have to do is write a program in python that, given a string (eg ABCAAAC, meaning a token was dropped from A, then another from B, then another from C, etc.) I have to determine wether or not it belongs to the language composed of the strings in which the last character (the last tken dropped) falls from exit one. To do this, first I figured out the automaton that models this behaviour, and the next step would be figuring out the grammar for that language by looking/doing smth with the FDA (I have to do it this way, not with regex).

Here is the picture of the FDA, I’m not sure it’s correct:

Here is the image of the automaton I made