Which computational framework lies behind the Chinese “Social Credit System”?

BACKGROUND

The Social Credit System is a data-driven reputation system which draws on several sources to label various entities, namely businesses and individual citizens, with a trustworthiness score. One can only guess that Facebook implements similar systems, albeit for different goals. What these systems have in common is that they’re based on an ontology, i.e., a finite set of entity-relations, which fix the constraints on the correlations between the various entities to be scored. One could think of similar ontologies in, say, cybersecurity, whereby various entities (domains, IP addresses, e-mails, etc.) can be seeded with beliefs or initial scores of maliciousness which will then propagate to their neighbors according to particular rules. The same could be done with fault prevention or forensics in mechanical systems of interacting entities.

QUESTION

Conceptually speaking, is there a common framework that best represents these systems? I initially thought of Bayesian propagation, but it seems that it doesn’t easily account for

  • uncertainties in the scores,
  • loops in the ontology graphs (how does one avoid runaway “feedback”?),
  • non-linearities at the nodes (since scores can be generated at a node itself based on its attributes, regardless of its neighbors). For example: Bob is a successful surgeon, Bill is a drug addict. Therefore, Bob is less likely than Bill to commit a crime—and that’s independently of any inference from their respective environments.

Online dealer asks for a photo of my credit card and driver’s license, and also all numbers from my card, is it ok?

I was shopping online and I could not buy the desired item, I could only make a request. After that, I received an email from the dealer:

“If you would like to proceed, please fill out the enclosed authorization form and email it back along with copy/picture of your credit card front and back and driver’s license (all required by the Finance Dpt.). Also please provide the complete street address, telephone and email.”

In this “attached authorization form” (just a .doc file) I have to write all the numbers on my credit card, including billing address and card identification number.

Looks like too much information about me. Is this normal?

Upgrading from Magento 2.2.6 to 2.3.1 broke credit memo partial refund functionality

In credit memo, there is a field “Adjustment Refund” on the bottom. Before upgrading to 2.3.1 If I entered a value in this field, there was an “Update Totals” Button which would update total. But after upgrading to 2.3.1 this button does not appear. Attaching screenshots for more details.

Credit Memo Broken[![][1]]2

Facebook changing owners does it take away credit card info associated?

My boss set up all kinds of pages for our different programs at our nonprofit, through her personal page, meaning she logged into her personal page then created new pages. When she put in a credit card for ads for the programs it linked the biz credit card to her personal Facebook page. Anything she can do?

Also if we give ownership of one of our pages to another nonprofit will it remove the credit card stored? The biz credit card is linked to each page she created. If she clicks deactivate ad account on one will it deactivate all and if the new owner decides to reactivate the ad account does it still have the old credit card in there or does it start anew with new CC information needing to be added?

C# program to check an item’s price against available credit

This is a working program to check an item’s price against available credit. I’m trying to simplify this program to the bare min. it would require to run so I’ll be better able to understand each part of the ‘if’ and ‘else’ processes. Is there a simpler way to write a program that accomplishes the task below? I’m new to C#, just trying to figure this stuff out.

Write a program named CheckCredit that prompts users to enter a purchase price for an item. If the value entered is greater than a credit limit of $ 8,000, display you have exceeded the credit limit; otherwise, display Approved.

using static System.Console;  namespace CheckCredit {     class Program     {         static void Main(string[] args)         {             const double CreditCheck = 8000;             string userInput;             double price;              WriteLine("This is a program designed to check an item's price              against your amount of available credit.");             WriteLine("Your credit limit is $  8,000.00.\n");              do             {                 Write("Please type the item's price:");                 userInput = ReadLine();                 if (!double.TryParse(userInput, out _))                 {                     WriteLine("Invalid input, please enter a whole or decimal number.");                     userInput = null;                 }             } while (!double.TryParse(userInput, out price));              if (price > CreditCheck)             {                 WriteLine(" You have exceeded the credit limit", price);             }              else if             (price == CreditCheck)             {                 WriteLine(                 "Approved.(*)\n\n\n"                 +                 "(*) It is exactly your credit limit.");             }             else             {                 WriteLine("Approved.");             }             ReadKey();         }     } } 

How to export Transaction ID and Credit Card Approval to CSV

I’ve been writing a script that exports a CSV into a directory. The CSV contains the information of the order, once the order has been made. The issue i’m having is exporting the information for transaction ID and CC Approval. Does anyone have any idea on how to gather that information?

Below you can see the two vars that are trying to gather the information $ paymentId and $ paymentApproval

public function sales_order_place_after($  observer) {     $  order = $  observer->getEvent()->getOrder();     $  quote_id = $  order->getQuoteId();      $  orderId = $  order->getEntityId();     $  order = Mage::getModel('sales/order')->load($  orderId);      $  text = "";     $  fp = fopen('hide/directory/for/question' . $  order->getIncrementId() . '.txt', 'w');      // billing info     $  billingAddress = $  order->getBillingAddress();     $  countryCode = $  billingAddress->getCountryId();     $  country = Mage::getModel('directory/country')->loadByCode($  countryCode);     $  countryName = $  country->getName();      //ship to billing info     $  shippingAddress = $  order->getShippingAddress();     $  shippingAddressCountryCode = $  shippingAddress->getCountryId();     $  shippingAddressCountry = Mage::getModel('directory/country')->loadByCode($  shippingAddressCountryCode);     $  shippingAddressCountryName = $  shippingAddressCountry->getName();      $  query = "Collect";     $  shippingDescription = $  order->getShippingDescription();     if (substr($  shippingDescription, 0, strlen($  query)) !== $  query) {         $  shippingCode = "PPD";         $  shippingAgentCode = "UPS";         $  shippingServiceCode = explode(" - UPS ", $  shippingDescription)[1];         $  carrierAccountNumber = "";         $  shippingAmount = $  shippingAddress->getShippingAmount();     } else {         // Shipping info         $  shippingCode = "COL";         $  shippingAgentCode = "";         $  shippingServiceCode = "";          $  order_id = $  order->getId();          $  carrierAccountNumber = Mage::getSingleton('checkout/session')->getCollectmemoComment();         $  carrierAccountNumber = $  carrierAccountNumber[$  quote_id];         $  shippingAmount = 0;     }      //Order Info     $  orderDate = $  order->getCreatedAt();     $  orderDateToShow = date('n/j/Y',strtotime($  orderDate));       // Transaction Info     $  orderTransactionDateTime = date('n/j/Y h:i:s A',strtotime($  orderDate));      // Account INfo     $  userEmail = $  order->getCustomerEmail();      // Payment info     $  payment = $  order->getPayment();     $  paymentCcType = $  payment->getData('cc_type');     $  paymentPoNumber = $  payment->getData('po_number');     $  paymentPoComment = $  payment->getData('po_comment');     $  paymentIdTwo = $  payment->getCcTransId();     $  poRefferenceNumber = $  payment->getData('po_ref_number');        $  paymentId = $  payment->getCcTransId();     // $  paymentId = $  payment->getData('cc_trans_id');      $  paymentApproval = $  payment->getData('cc_approval');     // $  paymentApproval = $  payment->getCcApproval();       $  paymentCcStatus = "";       if ($  paymentPoNumber != "" ) {         $  paymentCcStatus;     } else {         $  paymentCcStatus = "Approved";       }      if ($  paymentCcType == "VI") {         $  paymentCcType = "Visa";     } else if ($  paymentCcType == "MC") {         $  paymentCcType = "MasterCard";     } else if ($  paymentCcType == "AE") {         $  paymentCcType = "American Express";     } else if ($  paymentCcType == "DI") {         $  paymentCcType = "Discover";     }      $  item_incrementer = 1;     foreach ($  order->getAllItems() as $  itemId => $  item) {         $  fields = array($  billingAddress->getCompany(), $  billingAddress->getFirstname(), $  billingAddress->getMiddlename(), $  billingAddress->getLastname(), $  billingAddress->getStreet(1), $  billingAddress->getStreet(2), $  billingAddress->getCity(), $  billingAddress->getRegion(), $  billingAddress->getPostcode(), $  countryName, $  billingAddress->getTelephone(), $  userEmail ,$  shippingAddress->getCompany(), $  shippingAddress->getFirstname(), $  shippingAddress->getMiddlename(), $  shippingAddress->getLastname(), $  shippingAddress->getStreet(1), $  shippingAddress->getStreet(2), $  shippingAddress->getCity(), $  shippingAddress->getRegion(), $  shippingAddress->getPostcode(), $  shippingAddressCountryName, $  shippingAddress->getTelephone(), $  shippingCode, $  shippingAgentCode, $  shippingServiceCode, $  carrierAccountNumber, $  order->getShippingAmount(), $  paymentPoNumber, $  paymentPoComment, $  poRefferenceNumber, $  order->getIncrementId(), $  orderDateToShow, $  paymentCcStatus, $  paymentCcType, $  paymentApproval, $  paymentId, $  paymentIdTwo ,$  order->getGrandTotal(), $  orderTransactionDateTime,  $  item_incrementer, $  item->getSku(), $  item->getQtyOrdered(), $  item->getPrice() );           // echo '<pre>' , var_dump($  fields) , '</pre>';          $  field_incrementer = 0;         foreach($  fields as $  field ) {             if ($  field_incrementer > 0) {                 $  text .= "\t";             }             $  text .= $  field;              $  field_incrementer++;         }          $  text .= "\r\n";          $  item_incrementer++;     }      fwrite($  fp, $  text) ;      fclose($  fp); } 

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Credit Card Validation in C

I am relatively new to C programming and I am currently working through the CS50 EDX course. The problem I have solved below is for week 1 (credit).

Any suggestions on how to improve this code to further my learning would be most appreciated. I feel like my solution is very clunky although it does the job!

#include <cs50.h> #include <stdio.h> #include <math.h>  int main(void) {     long number = get_long("Number: ");      // get the individual intergers of number     // *2 odd digits      int i1 = ((number / 1000000000000000) % 10);      int t1 = i1 * 2;     int i2 = ((number / 100000000000000) % 10);     int i3 = ((number / 10000000000000) % 10);         int t3 = i3 * 2;          int i4 = ((number / 1000000000000) % 10);     int i5 = ((number / 100000000000) % 10);         int t5 = i5 * 2;     int i6 = ((number / 10000000000) % 10);     int i7 = ((number / 1000000000) % 10);         int t7 = i7 * 2;     int i8 = ((number / 100000000) % 10);     int i9 = ((number / 10000000) % 10);         int t9 = i9 * 2;     int i10 = ((number / 1000000) % 10);     int i11 = ((number / 100000) % 10);         int t11 = i11 * 2;     int i12 = ((number / 10000) % 10);     int i13 = ((number / 1000) % 10);         int t13 = i13 * 2;     int i14 = ((number / 100) % 10);     int i15 = ((number / 10) % 10);         int t15 = i15 * 2;     int i16 = (number % 10);      // Luhns Alg     // calculate sum of variable digits if > 9      if (t1>9)     {t1 = t1 - 9;}     if (t3>9)     {t3 = t3 - 9;}     if (t5>9)     {t5 = t5 - 9;}     if (t7>9)     {t7 = t7 - 9;}     if (t9>9)     {t9 = t9 - 9;}     if (t11>9)     {t11 = t11 - 9;}     if (t13>9)     {t13 = t13 - 9;}     if (t15>9)     {t15 = t15 - 9;}      // check lunghs algo = true (0)     // print card type       int sum = (t1+t3+t5+t7+t9+t11+t13+t15+i2+i4+i6+i8+i10+i12+i14+i16);       int check = (sum % 10);      if (check != 0)     printf("INVALID\n");     else     {     // check type of card         if(i1 == 0 && i2 == 3 && i3 == 4)         {             printf("AMEX\n");         }         else if(i1 == 0 && i2 == 3 && i3 == 7)         {             printf("AMEX\n");         }         else if (i1 == 5 && (i2 == 1 || i2 == 2 || i2 == 3 || i2 == 4 || i2 == 5))         {             printf("MASTERCARD\n");         }         else if (i1 == 4)         {             printf("VISA\n");         }         else              printf("INVALID\n");     } } The code currently outputs the correct results below.  378282246310005 = AMEX  5555555555554444 = MASTERCARD  5105105105105100 = MASTERCARD  4111111111111111 = VISA  5673598276138003 = INVALID  4062901840 = INVALID