When optimizing for damage, is it better for a Dex-based crossbow fighter to go full Fighter or multiclass with Rogue?

I’m trying to build an optimized character for a 5th edition D&D campaign and I really like the crossbowman fighter concept, but I had considered dipping into rogue for at least 3 levels to pick up sneak attack damage and the assassin archetype. Would this be a good idea, or would it just be better to go full fighter in order to get all of my Extra Attacks?

I’m trying to optimize for maximum damage.

I’ve chosen Battle Master for the Fighter archetype, as it seems to be the most useful for this particular type of build. Survivability isn’t a priority over damage, but I’ll take it where I can. This particular game is starting at 3rd level and may very well last until 20th.

Damage Resistance / Vulnerability: Double Damage or Dice?

When dealing with monsters who have resistance or vulnerability to a specific damage type, I’ve been having my players roll the expected damage and I’ll half or double it behind the screen. I’ve recently found a DM who tells the players outright if the monster is resistant or vulnerable, and, given the example of vulnerability, has them roll double dice instead of doubling the damage.

Is there a right way to deal with resistance and vulnerability, or is this one of those “DM Discretion/Preference” things?

Are there industry standards or specs for image sensor resistance to damage from intense light?

While the occasional snapshot that includes the sun is generally safe, there are certainly combinations of lens and duration that can damage an image sensor if the sun or other sufficiently bright light source is present.

Are there industry standards or specifications for some minimum safe conditions of light exposure at the image sensor’s surface? I’m asking about a spec that relates to the intensity at the surface of the sensor, so I’d expect that “industry” refers to sensor manufacturers.

Loosely speaking: is there some minimal, established test condition that most sensors can reliably survive without damage?

LIDAR burnout; standards, specifications, or even guidelines for thermal damage due to infrared lasers?

The BBC News article Driverless car laser ruined camera describes a situation where a particularly powerful infrared laser from the LIDAR of a prototype car at the CES show damaged the sensor of a photogrpher’s camera.

Question: Are there any standards, specifications, or even guidelines anywhere in the sensor or camera manufacturing industries for thermal damage due to intense sources of light?

  • If a LIDAR manufacturer wanted to be responsible and build a system that they could say probably will not damage security cameras and traffic cameras up and down the street, is there any place they could turn for information or limits on laser emission? Perhaps a maximum radiance value in each of several wavelength ranges?

  • Or if a camera manufacturer wanted to be responsible and build a camera that they could say probably will not be damaged by car, robot, or other LIDAR systems?

  • Or if a LIDAR were part of a display of another product (like a car or robot) but it may not be obvious to every member of the public that there were IR lasers involved, and the display owners wanted to know what laser level might warrant them including a warning about cameras?

So far, answers to the question Are there industry standards or specs for image sensor resistance to damage from intense light? Ask Question are basically “no”, but outdoor photography is so ubiquitous that there’s plenty of experience.

Now however, eye-level infrared laser beams are something new and different, and these are invisible and so one doesn’t necessarily know one is photographing a laser until the dot shows up in the photo.

If I understand correctly these LIDAR systems use wavelengths that are absorbed in the front of the eye and so never pass through the lens and get focused to a small spot on the retina. An IR-blocking filter on the lens can mitigate the problem, but an IR-blocking filter on the sensor, near the focus, can melt and fail for the obvious reason that it absorbs the power which is now focused to a small spot.

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Jit Ray Chowdhury/BBC

The lidar system on the top of the demonstration car

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Jit Ray Chowdhury/BBC

The purple dots and lines on this photo of the Stratosphere hotel in Las Vegas show the damage…

The article goes on to explain:

Lidar works in a similar way to radar and sonar, using lasers rather than radio or soundwaves, explained Zeina Nazer, a postgraduate researcher at the University of Southampton specialising in driverless car technology.

“Powerful lasers can damage cameras,” she said.

“Camera sensors are, in general, more susceptible to damage than the human eye from lasers. Consumers are usually warned never to point a camera directly at laser emitters during a laser show.”

Ms Nazer added that for cameras to be immune to high power laser beams, they need an optical filter that cuts out infrared which is invisible to humans. However, it can affect night vision, when infrared can be an advantage.

AEye is known for its lidar units with much longer range than their competitors, ranging 1km compared to 200m or 300m,” she said.

“In my opinion, AEye should not use their powerful fibre laser during shows.”

Are features that allow −5 to attack to get +10 to damage mathematically sound?

Some class features, monster traits, and feats allow you to take a −5 to your attack roll in order to gain a +10 to your damage roll. At first glance this looks really good, but when will it deal more damage than not using it on average?

For instance if you have a total attack bonus of +8 and you deal 1d12 damage. You have to roll a 7 to hit an AC of 15. If you take the −5 that makes it where you have to roll a 12. That’s going to reduce your average damage by a lot.

Advantage on initiative/never surprised or double fire damage? [on hold]

I’m playing a super beefy multiclass lv6 barbarian zealot/lv9 cleric of the forge domain. I’ve come to terms with what I’ll gain and lose for the most part, but there’s one trait I’m debating.

If I gain one more level in barbarian, I gain advantage on initiative and cannot be surprised in combat. However, if I do that I can’t reach lv14 cleric of the forge domain. And at lv14 I gain double fire damage per hit.

Should I sacrifice my fire damage for the advantage on rolls? Or should I stick it out for that sweet damage buff?

By the way, this is a lv15 startup character, and he’s an envoy warforged (I know not optimized, but I love the role-play aspect).

Calculating Damage from from object collision

I need to calculate the damage resulting from a crash of two objects.

I found the formula of the resulting kinetic energy:

E = m * v² / 2 

I guess I also have to use the masses or sizes of the objects as well.

It will make a difference if the spaceship collides with a mountain (which certainly will make both of them dealing heavy damage), or the spaceship is colliding with a floating tennisball in which case neither of them are dealing damage.

How does Chaos Bolt damage settle on a target?

It may sound straight forward, but I’ve read the spell’s description about 20 times now and it doesn’t specifically say.

Chaos Bolt (xge. 151) You hurl an undulating, warbling mass of chaotic energy at one creature in range. Make a ranged spell attack against the target. On a hit, the target takes 2d8 + 1d6 damage. If you roll the same number on both d8s, the chaotic energy leaps from the target to a different creature of your choice within 30 feet of it. Make a new attack roll against the new target, and make a new damage roll, which could cause the chaotic energy to leap again. A creature can be targeted only once by each casting of this spell.

You roll the attack, and let’s say it hits. Then you roll 2d8+1d6, let’s say both d8s are 5, meaning it would jump.

Here’s the question. Does the damage resolve on the first target THEN attack the second and resolve on the second as well? Due to the “wild magic” perception of it, it would “hit” the first guy, but not damage him, instead moving to the second guy, until finally you stop rolling doubles.

Ex: I’m attacking Bob (because screw Bob), and he’s got his buddies Ted and Dan. I roll to attack Bob, hit, roll damage. Both of my 8+8+6 (let’s say max damage, because Bob deserves that). That would mean it would jump to let’s say Ted (because screw Ted). Would Bob take the 8+8+6, and then I would roll to hit and damage Ted? OR would the damage to Bob not happen, and INSTEAD I would roll to hit and damage Ted?