## Does something count as “dealing damage” if its damage is reduced to zero?

An example of a feature where this sort of thing matters is the Optional Favored Foe feature for the Ranger from Tasha’s Cauldron of Everything (emphasis mine):

[…] The first time on each of your turns that you hit the favored enemy and deal damage to it, including when you mark it, you can increase that damage by 1d4. […]

This clearly means that if you hit with an attack that never deals damage, you would not trigger Favored Foe, but what happens if you hit with an attack that can deal damage but that damage was reduced to zero by either damage reduction, resistance, immunity or some other sort of feature; have you still dealt damage?

This question is different from the following:

• Does dealing 0 damage to a concentrating spellcaster require a saving throw?

As Constitution saving throws result from a creature taking damage, not from a creature dealing damage.

## Can you send an enemy flying by dealing damage?

I seem to remember a "build" for D&D 3 or 3.5 that if you damaged an opponent, they would have to make a Strength check vs the amount of damage done or be sent flying in 5 or 10 foot increments, and if their travel was hindered by someone or an object, the character and the object would take 1d6 damage for each range increment impeded, and if the object broke due to damage, the enemy would continue flying until the increments…

I’m trying to remember this was primarily for "large" or larger creatures… But my google fu is has failed me…

It might be from a 3pp that I’m remembering, but I don’t think so… Any leads and help would be greatly appreciated!

## Plotting a small gaussian | Small values and dealing with Machine Precision

I’ve defined the following:

``k := 1.38*10^-16 kev := 6.242*10^8 q := 4.8*10^-10 g := 1.66*10^-24 h := 6.63*10^-27 ``

and

``b = ((2^(3/2)) (\[Pi]^2)*1*6*(q^2)*(((1*g*12*g)/(1*g + 12*g))^(   1/2)) )/h  T6 := 20 T := T6*10^6 e0 := ((b k T6 *10^6)/2)^(2/3)  \[CapitalDelta] := 4/\[Sqrt]3 (e0 k T6 *10^6)^(1/2)  \[CapitalDelta]kev = \[CapitalDelta]*kev e0kev = e0*kev bkev = b*kev^(1/2) ``

Then, I want to plot these functions:

``fexp1[x_] = E^(-bkev *(x*kev)^(-1/2)) fexp2[x_] = E^(-x/(k*T)) fexp3[x_] = fexp1[x]*fexp2[x] ``

and check that this Taylor expansion works:

``fgauss[x_] =   Exp[(-3 (bkev^2/(4 k T*kev ))^(1/3))]*   Exp[(-((x*kev - e0kev)^2/(\[CapitalDelta]kev/2)^2))] ``

which should, e.g., as expected:

This plot came from "Stellar Astrophysics notes" of Edward Brown (also it is a known approximation).

I used this line of command to Plot:

``Plot[{fexp1[x],fexp2[x],fexp3[x],fgauss[x]}, {x, 0, 50},   PlotStyle -> {{Blue, Dashed}, {Dashed, Green}, {Thick, Red}, {Thick,      Black, Dashed}}, PlotRange -> Automatic, PlotTheme -> "Detailed",   GridLines -> {{{-1, Blue}, 0, 1}, {-1, 0, 1}},   AxesLabel -> {Automatic}, Frame -> True,   FrameLabel -> {Style["Energía E", FontSize -> 25, Black],     Style["f(E)", FontSize -> 25, Black]}, ImageSize -> Large,   PlotLegends ->    Placed[LineLegend[{"","","",""}, Background -> Directive[White, Opacity[.9]],      LabelStyle -> {15}, LegendLayout -> {"Column", 1}], {0.35, 0.75}]] ``

but it seems that Mathematica doesn’t like huge negative exponentials. I know I can compute this using Python but it’s a surprise to think that Mathematica can’t deal with the problem somehow. Could you help me?

## Dealing with defense in BESM

In BESM, it seems to be a lot easier to build a character capable of dealing massive amounts of damage than a character capable of taking massive amounts of damage. As a DM, I don’t want to build every possible opponent with massive armor and defense attributes, because it feels unrealistic that everyone walks around in power armor or whatever. What am I meant to be doing to help balance combat? Or is this not meant to be an issue?

The game I’m running is fairly low on combat, mostly social interaction, but when a PC can one-shot just about anyone with a 26-point weapon, they’re getting a little cocky. It’s themed around high-school aged characters, like one of those shows that alternates between slice-of-life filler episodes and battles with season-long reoccurring villains. A lot of their fights are the result of social interaction going badly rather than storming the castle, so I’m not always sure in advance who they’ll pick a fight with.

(We’re in 3rd edition Tri-stat, not d20)

## Dealing with a frustrating player

I have been a part of a Dungeons & Dragons campaign for almost a year now (I am not the DM) and we have a player who has, within the past few months, quickly become very difficult to deal with.

1. He is notoriously late, often an hour to an hour and a half regardless if we met online or in person. When he finally showed up, he would get on his phone to watch unrelated videos with the volume up loud, carry on conversations in the middle of a battle, and not pay attention until it was his turn. When it was his turn he would ask "alright, so what’s happening?" and proceed to reiterate everything that happened while he wasn’t paying attention. If it wasn’t his turn, he would attempt to force the story back onto him.

2. While we met online, we noticed was that this player suddenly starting rolling really high for someone in a single digit level and succeeding in everything that he wanted his character to do. When we met back in person, he started hiding his dice behind a "plastic bag fortress" and grabbing the dice before we could confirm the number and call out "Nat 20!" (which in our campaign is an automatic success and less than a 5% chance of rolling it per game, let alone an individual session). This made the rest of us annoyed because we couldn’t prove it and obviously couldn’t do anything against him. (but come on, players don’t need to hide their dice!)

3. His character is a gunslinger and therefore, before the rest of us got a chance to do anything, he would take out his gun and shoot anyone who disagreed with him, regardless if it was an NPC or another player. And his alignment would change with whatever he felt his character needed to do in that moment. This would naturally lead into sometimes an unwanted initiative where he would be unstoppable thanks to his suspiciously high rolls.

4. Our DM’s younger sister joined us for a brief period with two young (female) characters, one a rogue, the other a sorcerer. This player decided that his character would take them "under his wing". In other words, tell the rogue she wasn’t allowed to steal from people and tell the sorcerer to train to use a sword and not wield her magic. He went after multiple female NPCs (and a couple of player’s female characters) to try and force in-game relationships that (while fun) were quite unnecessary.

5. Despite his high rolls and ability to succeed, he constantly asked where his initiative modifier was located on his sheet, he didn’t know which one was the six-sided dice, and refused to call characters by their real name (because he didn’t try to remember them). He claims that the out-of-game arguments are "playful banter". Also, that he has been under a lot of stress (which is no excuse to cheat!). Everyone in our campaign uses D&D to de-stress and he takes the fun out of playing and ends up causing more stress to the evening. He has even caused two members of our group to quit.

Our DM has put up with his antics for a lot longer than he should have. While these are obvious red flags, he wasn’t like this at the start of the campaign. It felt like once we started meeting online he took it as an opportunity to mess with us and it carried over when we met back in person. We don’t know if he understands how much stress he is causing or is simply ignoring it in order to feel better about himself. We know that if we do confront him he will oppose the charges, or, if he does change, will only revert back when we become comfortable in our game-play.

We can’t deal with his cheating, manipulative, disruptive behavior any more. How do we gently (or not-so-gently) tell him that he straight up needs to leave?

## Am I dealing with a crafty DDOS attack?

I am an Xbox gamer. I have been dealing with an person who has used his skill set to ddos me. It’s proven via messages (reported messages MANY times and nothing has been done). I believe the intensity of the attacks have increased to a much more severe type of an attack than your traditional ddos where you reset the router/modem and you are good. Over the last 3 months I have been booted offline and dealing with tons of lag often leading to no connection. At first it was just a disconnection and as time progressed… three months later here I am almost on a timed schedule where I lose internet from 11am and regain internet around 10 pm. At first it would go out around 1-1:30pm and come back around 7pm. Everyday over the last week that gap has become larger and larger increasing 15-30 minutes on both ends leading to almost 12 hours without internet. I have talked to my isp MANY times and they have replaced every bit of line from the street all the way to my house and no results “everything seems to be running fine on our end”. ISP telephone support tells me there is signal to my modem but no signal back. I have used multiple different setups, 2 different types of modem and router setups, and I have tried using a single Unit modem/router. None of which are able to connect to the internet from 11am-10pm (exact same issue reguardless of setup). Times are not exact but within a 30 minute window of those times every time every day. I obtained a VPN, that too has made no difference. I have played with wall outlets on both sides of the wall to check for interference and nothing has changed. Most times I am home alone with nothing but my Xbox and normal everyday appliances running. With my ISP so clueless to a resolution, this leads me to believe a more serious ddos attack is taking place. Any advice/help would be highly appreciated. Thank you!

## Has anyone had to DM the Giant Coral Snake from 5e SaltMarsh dealing stun damage to undead?

Last night I was DMing my group. They were fighting some undead and the Wizard polymorphed the ranger’s animal companion into the Giant Coral Snake from Ghosts of Saltmarsh. Upon a hit by the coral snake, the target must make a DC 12 CON save or be stunned until it’s next turn. Furthermore, on a failed save the target begins to hallucinate and is affected by short term madness. This lasts for 10 minutes. Ok, so that’s pretty clear. However, since the coral snake was attacking an undead creature I ruled the stun feature, as well as the hallucination, wouldn’t take affect due Undead creatures being immune to poison (or, in this case venom from a coral snake). The stat block didn’t call it poison damage but….well, it had to have been right? My players seemed to accept this line of reasoning but I am curious, has anyone else encountered this?

## Trust in online platforms dealing with virtual goods

I hope this is the right stackexchange for this sort of question. Probably it can be more generalized, but I will explain it using my use-case.
I am implementing an online platform, where third-parties sell virtual goods to clients on a subscription basis. Let’s take for example ebooks as a virtual good in this case.
How can the third-parties trust my platform? How can they know that I don’t cheat with the number of subscriptions I report back to them? Do any solutions exist for this or some papers? I can’t possibly be the first with this kind of problem. The problem is I even don’t know what to search for.
Game theory is also the only tag which I could think of, maybe someone could edit the tags?

## Does dealing 0 damage to a concentrating spellcaster require a saving throw?

Wizard is currently concentrating on a spell. Wimpling has a -1 Strength modifier, and makes a melee attack on Wizard. The attack hits, but Wimpling rolls a 1 on the damage roll, meaning that after applying his Strength modifier, he deals 0 damage.

Per the SRD, Damage Rolls (and in more recent Player’s Handbook printings):

With a penalty, it is possible to deal 0 damage, but never negative damage.

From the Spellcasting chapter, Concentration:

The following factors can break concentration:

Taking damage. Whenever you take damage while you are concentrating on a spell, you must make a Constitution saving throw to maintain your concentration. The DC equals 10 or half the damage you take, whichever number is higher. If you take damage from multiple sources, such as an arrow and a dragon’s breath, you make a separate saving throw for each source of damage.

But I’m not sure if “dealing 0 damage” means that the target “takes damage”. Does Wizard need to make a Constitution saving throw to continue concentrating on the spell?

I’d prefer official sources or references if available. If there aren’t any, then I would accept any semi-official or well-informed well-reasoned arguments, preferably backed up by whatever evidence is available.

## Dealing with a large number of bad chars

I have recently discovered a Buffer Overflow vulnerability that leads to Remote Code Execution. However, due to the structure of the application assessed, a lot of so-called ‘bad chars’ came up. The list is as follows:

``\x00\x0a\x1a\x0d\x22\x2f\x2a\x26\x2e\x3a\x5c\x41\x42\x43\x44\x45\x46\x47\x48\x49\x4a\x4b\x4c\x4d\x4e\x4f\x50\x51\x52\x53\x54\x55\x56\x57\x58\x59\x5a ``

It basically eliminated the whole uppercase alphabet A-Z, since the application turns these letters to lowercase.

The question is, is exploitation still possible in such a case? If so, what are the methods to achieve it?