Internal microphone not detected and hence not working

I recently installed Ubuntu 19.10, wiping Windows 10, and my internal microphone isn’t working. I tried installing Pulse Audio, alsamixer and there there is no internal mic being detected.

Input settings screenshot

However, when I connect a headphone with mic, it works fine. I also tried to add few combinations under /etc/modprobe.d/alsa-base.conf file, following few blogs, unsuccessfully.

alias snd-card-0 snd-hda-intel  options snd-hda-intel model=auto 

I tried things from the below link as well but unfortunately didn’t work

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/PulseAudio/Troubleshooting#Microphone_not_detected_by_PulseAudio

Under alsamixer the card is HDA Intel PCH and Chip is Realtek ALC3204

Note: My Laptop config is like this

Laptop config

Any and all kind of help is appreciated.

Thanks in advance.

PS: I am a newbie, who has just started to learn and my first step was to install the OS.

What is the difference between “application … closed unexpectedly” and “system program problem detected”?

I have two laptops, both with Ubuntu 19.04 installed. One of them is a couple of years older and has had the Ubuntu version upgraded a few times. The other one is newer and got 19.04 installed from the beginning, not upgraded from any previous Ubuntu version.

On my older laptop I sometimes get error messages looking like this:

Error message window on my old laptop

which is nice because it allows me to click the “Show details” button to see lots of details about what happened.

On the newer laptop there are sometimes messages looking like this:

enter image description here

I suspect that it may be the same kind of problem but for some reason handled differently by Ubuntu despite the fact that both are running Ubuntu 19.04.

Do these messages mean the same thing?

If not, what is the difference between “application … closed unexpectedly” and “system program problem detected” and how can I get more details in the latter case? (the “system program problem detected” leaves no file in /var/crash/ unfortunately)

One theory I have about this is that the older laptop, having originally run older Ubuntu versions and then been upgraded, has some settings in a config file somewhere left from a previous Ubuntu version telling it to use the older, more detailed (and in my opinion much better) way of showing errors. Could this theory be correct? If so, which config file would I need to modify in order to get the behavior I want, allowing me to show details about the error?

USB detected slowly and does not auto mount in Ubuntu 18.04

I have recently installed Xubuntu 18.04 on my Dell Studio 1558 laptop, and I find that by USB is now taking a long time to be detected and does not get auto mounted by the file manager. It used to work fine with the 17.XX version of Xubuntu.

I find that right after plugging in the USB, dmesg shows that it has detected the USB, but the entry in /dev is created only after some time. Even after the entry gets created (/dev/sdb), it is not auto mounted. I can manually mount the USB and it is accessible after that.

I have checked dconf editor for auto mount options and they look fine. The drive does not show up in Disks utility either.

Following are my observations:

dmesg and other command output (right after plugging in the USB)

 privat@privat-Studio-1558:~$   lsblk NAME   MAJ:MIN RM   SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT sda      8:0    0 298.1G  0 disk ├─sda1   8:1    0  39.2M  0 part ├─sda2   8:2    0  14.7G  0 part ├─sda3   8:3    0 104.8G  0 part ├─sda4   8:4    0     1K  0 part ├─sda5   8:5    0   7.9G  0 part └─sda6   8:6    0 170.7G  0 part / sr0     11:0    1  1024M  0 rom  privat@privat-Studio-1558:~$   sudo fdisk -l [sudo] password for privat: Disk /dev/sda: 298.1 GiB, 320072933376 bytes, 625142448 sectors Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes Disklabel type: dos Disk identifier: 0x06d985af  Device     Boot     Start       End   Sectors   Size Id Type /dev/sda1  *           63     80324     80262  39.2M de Dell Utility /dev/sda2           80325  30800324  30720000  14.7G 83 Linux /dev/sda3        30800325 250624148 219823824 104.8G 83 Linux /dev/sda4       250626046 625141759 374515714 178.6G  5 Extended /dev/sda5       608653312 625141759  16488448   7.9G 82 Linux swap / Solaris /dev/sda6       250626048 608653311 358027264 170.7G 83 Linux  Partition table entries are not in disk order.  privat@privat-Studio-1558:~$   df -h Filesystem      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on udev            3.9G     0  3.9G   0% /dev tmpfs           784M  1.4M  783M   1% /run /dev/sda6       168G   15G  145G  10% / tmpfs           3.9G   23M  3.9G   1% /dev/shm tmpfs           5.0M  4.0K  5.0M   1% /run/lock tmpfs           3.9G     0  3.9G   0% /sys/fs/cgroup tmpfs           784M   16K  784M   1% /run/user/1000  dmesg snippet:  [  445.202900] usb 2-1.3: new high-speed USB device number 3 using ehci-pci [  445.323808] usb 2-1.3: New USB device found, idVendor=0781, idProduct=5567, bcdDevice= 1.00 [  445.323811] usb 2-1.3: New USB device strings: Mfr=1, Product=2, SerialNumber=3 [  445.323812] usb 2-1.3: Product: Cruzer Blade [  445.323813] usb 2-1.3: Manufacturer: SanDisk [  445.323815] usb 2-1.3: SerialNumber: 4C530000210213115415  privat@privat-Studio-1558:~$   lsusb Bus 002 Device 003: ID 0781:5567 SanDisk Corp. Cruzer Blade Bus 002 Device 002: ID 8087:0020 Intel Corp. Integrated Rate Matching Hub Bus 002 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub Bus 001 Device 004: ID 0c45:6416 Microdia Bus 001 Device 006: ID 413c:8162 Dell Computer Corp. Integrated Touchpad [Synaptics] Bus 001 Device 005: ID 413c:8161 Dell Computer Corp. Integrated Keyboard Bus 001 Device 003: ID 0a5c:4500 Broadcom Corp. BCM2046B1 USB 2.0 Hub (part of BCM2046 Bluetooth) Bus 001 Device 002: ID 8087:0020 Intel Corp. Integrated Rate Matching Hub Bus 001 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub  lshw          *-usb:0              description: USB controller              product: 5 Series/3400 Series Chipset USB2 Enhanced Host Controller              vendor: Intel Corporation              physical id: 1a              bus info: pci@0000:00:1a.0              version: 06              width: 32 bits              clock: 33MHz              capabilities: pm debug ehci bus_master cap_list              configuration: driver=ehci-pci latency=0              resources: irq:16 memory:f0b06000-f0b063ff            *-usbhost                 product: EHCI Host Controller                 vendor: Linux 5.0.0-31-generic ehci_hcd                 physical id: 1                 bus info: usb@1                 logical name: usb1                 version: 5.00                 capabilities: usb-2.00                 configuration: driver=hub slots=3 speed=480Mbit/s               *-usb                    description: USB hub                    product: Integrated Rate Matching Hub                    vendor: Intel Corp.                    physical id: 1                    bus info: usb@1:1                    version: 0.00                    capabilities: usb-2.00                    configuration: driver=hub slots=6 speed=480Mbit/s                  *-usb:0                       description: USB hub                       product: BCM2046B1                       vendor: Broadcom                       physical id: 1                       bus info: usb@1:1.1                       version: 1.00                       capabilities: usb-2.00                       configuration: driver=hub maxpower=94mA slots=3 speed=12Mbit/s                     *-usb:0                          description: Keyboard                          product: Integrated Keyboard                          vendor: Dell Computer Corp.                          physical id: 1                          bus info: usb@1:1.1.1                          version: 1.00                          capabilities: usb-2.00                          configuration: driver=usbhid maxpower=2mA speed=12Mbit/s                     *-usb:1 UNCLAIMED                          description: Mouse                          product: Integrated Touchpad [Synaptics]                          vendor: Dell Computer Corp.                          physical id: 2                          bus info: usb@1:1.1.2                          version: 1.00                          capabilities: usb-2.00                          configuration: maxpower=2mA speed=12Mbit/s                  *-usb:1                       description: Video                       product: Laptop_Integrated_Webcam_2M                       vendor: M092S-H02-0525-SC48Q                       physical id: 4                       bus info: usb@1:1.4                       version: a1.15                       capabilities: usb-2.00                       configuration: driver=uvcvideo maxpower=168mA speed=480Mbit/s  

After some time, I see the /dev/sdb entry. Output of commands after this:

 dmesg snippet:  [  445.202900] usb 2-1.3: new high-speed USB device number 3 using ehci-pci [  445.323808] usb 2-1.3: New USB device found, idVendor=0781, idProduct=5567, bcdDevice= 1.00 [  445.323811] usb 2-1.3: New USB device strings: Mfr=1, Product=2, SerialNumber=3 [  445.323812] usb 2-1.3: Product: Cruzer Blade [  445.323813] usb 2-1.3: Manufacturer: SanDisk [  445.323815] usb 2-1.3: SerialNumber: 4C530000210213115415 [  815.370890] usb-storage 2-1.3:1.0: USB Mass Storage device detected [  815.371165] scsi host5: usb-storage 2-1.3:1.0 [  815.371305] usbcore: registered new interface driver usb-storage [  815.412954] usbcore: registered new interface driver uas [  816.382630] scsi 5:0:0:0: Direct-Access     SanDisk  Cruzer Blade     1.00 PQ: 0 ANSI: 6 [  816.383044] sd 5:0:0:0: Attached scsi generic sg2 type 0 [  816.384110] sd 5:0:0:0: [sdb] 122585088 512-byte logical blocks: (62.8 GB/58.5 GiB) [  816.385620] sd 5:0:0:0: [sdb] Write Protect is off [  816.385623] sd 5:0:0:0: [sdb] Mode Sense: 43 00 00 00 [  816.386606] sd 5:0:0:0: [sdb] Write cache: disabled, read cache: enabled, doesn't support DPO or FUA [  816.401129]  sdb: sdb1 [  816.404620] sd 5:0:0:0: [sdb] Attached SCSI removable disk  privat@privat-Studio-1558:~$   lsblk NAME   MAJ:MIN RM   SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT sda      8:0    0 298.1G  0 disk ├─sda1   8:1    0  39.2M  0 part ├─sda2   8:2    0  14.7G  0 part ├─sda3   8:3    0 104.8G  0 part ├─sda4   8:4    0     1K  0 part ├─sda5   8:5    0   7.9G  0 part └─sda6   8:6    0 170.7G  0 part / sdb      8:16   1  58.5G  0 disk └─sdb1   8:17   1  58.5G  0 part sr0     11:0    1  1024M  0 rom  privat@privat-Studio-1558:~$   sudo fdisk -l Disk /dev/sda: 298.1 GiB, 320072933376 bytes, 625142448 sectors Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes Disklabel type: dos Disk identifier: 0x06d985af  Device     Boot     Start       End   Sectors   Size Id Type /dev/sda1  *           63     80324     80262  39.2M de Dell Utility /dev/sda2           80325  30800324  30720000  14.7G 83 Linux /dev/sda3        30800325 250624148 219823824 104.8G 83 Linux /dev/sda4       250626046 625141759 374515714 178.6G  5 Extended /dev/sda5       608653312 625141759  16488448   7.9G 82 Linux swap / Solaris /dev/sda6       250626048 608653311 358027264 170.7G 83 Linux  Partition table entries are not in disk order.     Disk /dev/sdb: 58.5 GiB, 62763565056 bytes, 122585088 sectors Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes Disklabel type: dos Disk identifier: 0x00000000  Device     Boot Start       End   Sectors  Size Id Type /dev/sdb1          32 122585087 122585056 58.5G  c W95 FAT32 (LBA)  privat@privat-Studio-1558:~$   lsusb Bus 002 Device 003: ID 0781:5567 SanDisk Corp. Cruzer Blade Bus 002 Device 002: ID 8087:0020 Intel Corp. Integrated Rate Matching Hub Bus 002 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub Bus 001 Device 004: ID 0c45:6416 Microdia Bus 001 Device 006: ID 413c:8162 Dell Computer Corp. Integrated Touchpad [Synaptics] Bus 001 Device 005: ID 413c:8161 Dell Computer Corp. Integrated Keyboard Bus 001 Device 003: ID 0a5c:4500 Broadcom Corp. BCM2046B1 USB 2.0 Hub (part of BCM2046 Bluetooth) Bus 001 Device 002: ID 8087:0020 Intel Corp. Integrated Rate Matching Hub Bus 001 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub 

The drive is not auto mounted even after this. Manual mount works fine:

 privat@privat-Studio-1558:~$   sudo mount /dev/sdb1 /media/usb 

I am wondering why the /dev entry might be getting installed slowly, and auto mount does not seem to work.

Thanks in advance for any insights.

Built-in Webcam not being detected on linux mint 19.1 cinnamon

i have being using linux mint for almost a year now, and i had no problems, but recently my built in webcam was not being detected by any of the applications (Zoom, Skype, Cheese….).

This is Cheese not detecting any devices.

And zoom….

This is what comes up when i enter the lsusb command:

Bus 002 Device 002: ID 8087:0024 Intel Corp. Integrated Rate Matching  Hub Bus 002 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub Bus 001 Device 004: ID 0a5c:21e6 Broadcom Corp. BCM20702 Bluetooth 4.0  [ThinkPad] Bus 001 Device 003: ID 1ea7:0064   Bus 001 Device 002: ID 8087:0024 Intel Corp. Integrated Rate Matching  Hub Bus 001 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub Bus 004 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0003 Linux Foundation 3.0 root hub Bus 003 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub 

I’m using a ThinkPad T430s 3rd gen intel vPro i5 4GB memory, could any one help?

Best regards,

Young Fellow.

Executable scrambling with Hyperion is detected. What can I do?

I am using Hyperion v2.1 to scramble (polymorphism) some .exe file:

hyperion.exe myexefile.exe scrambled.exe 

The resulting scrambled.exe file is detected and deleted by the AV or IDS system.

As far as I know, Hyperion performs some polymorphics changes, so generally it should work and be able to dodge AV defenses.

What can I do? Maybe increasing some parameters at Hyperion’s config? Scrambling twice, or with another scrambler like PEScrambler?

After creating a new user, monitor is not detected when logged in as new user, but is detected when logged in as old user

I created a new user. However, after logging in as the new user, the Monitor Settings cannot detect my monitor and therefore cannot set the proper resolution. When I log in with the old user, the monitor is detected and the proper resolution is used. I am using Ubuntu MATE 18.04 with the NVIDIA drivers.

Sound cards not detected after update to Ubuntu 18.04 – Nothing helps

Both my external speakers (via headphone jack) and monitor speakers (via displayport) worked prior to the update, though I remember having to fiddle when I first installed Ubuntu. Since the upgrade, the only sound output device that displays is a Unix FIFO sink from my chrome-remote-desktop.

I’ve tried everything the internet mentioned, but I can’t seem to figure out what’s wrong and I feel as though I’ve expended all of the old recommendations I’ve found here and elsewhere. As you’ll see below, my sounds cards are present but somehow not being detected by the system/pavucontrol, so my best guess is there’s some config file that’s hanging out that I haven’t been able to find and purge. Any suggestions are appreciated–I’m at my wits end and just want to watch Netflix… 🙂

My /proc/asound/cards has the following:

0 [PCH            ]: HDA-Intel - HDA Intel PCH                       HDA Intel PCH at 0xef630000 irq 39 1 [NVidia         ]: HDA-Intel - HDA NVidia                       HDA NVidia at 0xef080000 irq 17 

Likewise, lspci -v | grep -A5 -i "audio" says:

00:1b.0 Audio device: Intel Corporation 9 Series Chipset Family HD Audio Controller     Subsystem: ASRock Incorporation 9 Series Chipset Family HD Audio Controller     Flags: bus master, fast devsel, latency 0, IRQ 39     Memory at ef630000 (64-bit, non-prefetchable) [size=16K]     Capabilities: <access denied>     Kernel driver in use: snd_hda_intel     Kernel modules: snd_hda_intel -- 01:00.1 Audio device: NVIDIA Corporation GP106 High Definition Audio Controller (rev a1)     Subsystem: Micro-Star International Co., Ltd. [MSI] GP106 High Definition Audio Controller     Flags: bus master, fast devsel, latency 0, IRQ 17     Memory at ef080000 (32-bit, non-prefetchable) [size=16K]     Capabilities: <access denied>     Kernel driver in use: snd_hda_intel     Kernel modules: snd_hda_intel 

So I know my sound cards are there. I’ve also confirmed that nothing is muted in alsamixer.

aplay -l produces:

    **** List of PLAYBACK Hardware Devices **** card 0: PCH [HDA Intel PCH], device 0: ALC1150 Analog [ALC1150 Analog]   Subdevices: 1/1   Subdevice #0: subdevice #0 card 0: PCH [HDA Intel PCH], device 1: ALC1150 Digital [ALC1150 Digital]   Subdevices: 1/1   Subdevice #0: subdevice #0 card 1: NVidia [HDA NVidia], device 3: HDMI 0 [HDMI 0]   Subdevices: 1/1   Subdevice #0: subdevice #0 card 1: NVidia [HDA NVidia], device 7: HDMI 1 [HDMI 1]   Subdevices: 1/1   Subdevice #0: subdevice #0 card 1: NVidia [HDA NVidia], device 8: HDMI 2 [HDMI 2]   Subdevices: 1/1   Subdevice #0: subdevice #0 card 1: NVidia [HDA NVidia], device 9: HDMI 3 [HDMI 3]   Subdevices: 1/1   Subdevice #0: subdevice #0 

I’ve run pulseaudio -k && sudo alsa force-reload, as well.

I’ve tried uninstalling and reinstalling audio packages recommended here: Sound card stopped being detected

I’ve tried everything here, too: No sound in Ubuntu 18.04 LTS after upgrade from 16.04 LTS In pavucontrol no cards are detected so I can’t unmute gnome-alsamixer.

I’ve added options snd-hda-intel model=auto to the end of my /etc/modprobe.d/alsa-base.conf also. I built my own computer and maybe there’s something better than “auto”?

I tried removing snd_hda_intel with pulseaudio -k && sudo service alsa-utils stop && sudo modprobe -r snd_hda_intel && sudo modprobe snd-hda-intel && sudo service alsa-utils start && pulseaudio -D but couldn’t because it was in use.

I’m out of ideas. :/

Nvidia GTX 1650 not detected in Ubuntu 18.04.3

Machine: ASUS TUF FX505DT – AMD Ryzen 5 3550H with GTX 1650 4GB

I recently bought this machine. It came with windows. GTX 1650 worked in windows without any issue. After I cleaned by ssd, disabled secure boot in bios and installed Ubuntu 18.04.3, graphics card is not being recognized only.

additional driver before install

I added graphics-drivers/ppa, purged all existing nvidia packages, installed nvidia-driver-430(tried 435 as well) still it didn’t work. I’ve also installed sudo add-apt-repository -r ppa:xorg-edgers/ppa

additional driver after install

This is how the about is shown regarding the machine

about the machine

Product model is not showing unknown in the additional drivers settings. Product model is just Nvidia in lshw -C display

    shivakumaar@techpack-tuf:~$   sudo lshw -C display [sudo] password for shivakumaar:    *-display                         description: VGA compatible controller        product: NVIDIA Corporation        vendor: NVIDIA Corporation        physical id: 0        bus info: pci@0000:01:00.0        version: a1        width: 64 bits        clock: 33MHz        capabilities: pm msi pciexpress vga_controller bus_master cap_list rom        configuration: driver=nvidia latency=0        resources: irq:67 memory:f6000000-f6ffffff memory:c0000000-cfffffff memory:d0000000-d1ffffff ioport:f000(size=128) memory:f7000000-f707ffff   *-display        description: VGA compatible controller        product: Picasso        vendor: Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. [AMD/ATI]        physical id: 0        bus info: pci@0000:05:00.0        version: c2        width: 64 bits        clock: 33MHz        capabilities: pm pciexpress msi msix vga_controller bus_master cap_list        configuration: driver=amdgpu latency=0        resources: irq:65 memory:e0000000-efffffff memory:f0000000-f01fffff ioport:c000(size=256) memory:f7500000-f757ffff shivakumaar@techpack-tuf:~$   sudo nvidia-xconfig  WARNING: Unable to locate/open X configuration file.  Package xorg-server was not found in the pkg-config search path. Perhaps you should add the directory containing `xorg-server.pc' to the PKG_CONFIG_PATH environment variable No package 'xorg-server' found New X configuration file written to '/etc/X11/xorg.conf'  shivakumaar@techpack-tuf:~$   nvidia-detector none shivakumaar@techpack-tuf:~$   nvidia-settings  ERROR: Unable to load info from any available system   (nvidia-settings:2313): GLib-GObject-CRITICAL **: 13:01:50.443: g_object_unref: assertion 'G_IS_OBJECT (object)' failed ** Message: 13:01:50.448: PRIME: No offloading required. Abort ** Message: 13:01:50.448: PRIME: is it supported? no 

nvida x controller settings

shivakumaar@techpack-tuf:~$   nvidia-smi Sat Sep 28 13:02:14 2019        +-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+ | NVIDIA-SMI 435.21       Driver Version: 435.21       CUDA Version: 10.1     | |-------------------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | GPU  Name        Persistence-M| Bus-Id        Disp.A | Volatile Uncorr. ECC | | Fan  Temp  Perf  Pwr:Usage/Cap|         Memory-Usage | GPU-Util  Compute M. | |===============================+======================+======================| |   0  GeForce GTX 1650    Off  | 00000000:01:00.0 Off |                  N/A | | N/A   42C    P8     2W /  N/A |      0MiB /  3911MiB |      0%      Default | +-------------------------------+----------------------+----------------------+  +-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+ | Processes:                                                       GPU Memory | |  GPU       PID   Type   Process name                             Usage      | |=============================================================================| |  No running processes found                                                 | +-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+  shivakumaar@techpack-tuf:~$   nvidia-debugdump --list Found 1 NVIDIA devices     Device ID:              0     Device name:            GeForce GTX 1650     GPU internal ID:        GPU-ba92a04a-ae32-bc09-62df-9fe847ba81ca 

After installing the drivers if I reboot and try to login into Ubuntu(xorg) it freezes in the login screen or logs out immediately. But Ubuntu(Wayland) login works fine. But with all the drivers install screen flickers constantly in Wayland.

find: File system loop detected; ‘/snap/core18/1144’ is part of the same file system loop as ‘/’

Sudo find / -iname ".demoCA' -type d fails with these error messages

find: File system loop detected; ‘/snap/core18/1144’ is part of the same file system loop as ‘/’. find: File system loop detected; ‘/writable/system-data/snap/core18/1144’ is part of the same file system loop as ‘/’ 

Trying to find openssl default CA folder on ubuntu core 18. openssl is not a snap

Particular WiFi network not detected

I installed yesterday Ubuntu 18.04 in dual boot on a computer usually used with Windows 7.

Everything went fine, except that I am unable to connect to my WiFi network. The weirdest thing being that my Network card seems to work perfectly: Ubuntu’s Network Manager detects all the surrounding WiFi networks, except for mine, which is called “WiFi-2.4-68B7”.

I already tried different solutions, none worked:

  1. I configured “WiFi-2.4-68B7” in the “known networks” and tried to access it through the “Connect to hidden network tool”.
  2. I checked whether Ubuntu was detecting my Network chipset correctly, which appears to be the case:

dd@dd:~$ sudo lspci

Network controller: Broadcom Inc. and subsidiaries BCM4313 802.11bgn Wireless Network Adapter (rev 01)

  1. I tried reinstalling the Broadcom driver for my BCM4313

dd@dd:~$ sudo apt-get –reinstall install bcmwl-kernel-source

  1. I also tried the solution proposed here, but with no result.

I am out of ideas to solve the problem. It should be noted I can connect just fine to my WiFi network when I boot from Windows 7, the problem is thus not from the hardware.

Does anyone have an idea? Thank you!