Is there a difference between confirming a critical hit vs scoring a critical hit in 3.5?

For the sake of this question and my answer is there a mention in the rules somewhere, in the FAQ maybe? because in PF it is confirmed to be the same thing here.

Scoring VS Confirming, are they the same or not in 3.5? (it is confirmed in PF to be the same thing)

Because you can use the flaming burst critical ability on a creature immune to critical hits as shown here.

But you don’t actually do critical base damage so Blood in the water might not work if confirming the actual critical hit (meaning you verify you would normally crit if it was made on a creature not immune to critical hits, activating the flaming burst critical ability)is not the same as the term ”scoring” wich could actually mean that you have to do the extra damage for Blood in the water to activate.

I think both terms mean the same thing just as in PF, but I wanted a Rule reference or a FAQ citation etc.

PostgreSQL: difference between index on materialized view and index on tables used in a non-materialized view

I have tables a(id TEXT, url TEXT) and b(id TEXT, url TEXT) containing same or similar set of columns.

Would the query plans created for simple SELECT * FROM m WHERE id = ? be identical (or at least within same order of magnitude) for the following two views:

  1. Materialized view combining columns from both tables with an index on the shared id field
CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW m AS (   SELECT id, url FROM a   UNION   SELECT id, url FROM b ); CREATE INDEX idx_m_id ON m(id);  
  1. View combining the tables, with each table having its own index on the column
CREATE INDEX idx_a_id ON a(id);  CREATE INDEX idx_b_id ON b(id);  CREATE VIEW m AS (   SELECT id, url FROM a   UNION   SELECT id, url FROM b ); 

What is the real difference between D&D 4th Edition and Essentials?

I’ve played mostly 2nd Ed. and some 3/3.5. I have a lot invested in those materials. I am intrigued by 4E an Essentials, but am looking for the best way to approach the new editions. Keep in mind I am introducing my children of varied ages to D&D as well. The older ones have limited experience with the game, while the younger ones will be new to it. I am a little confused about the differences between 4E and Essentials. Should I start with Essentials and then move to the core rule books, or just start with the core rules?

What difference to privacy will I get if i change my workplace wifi DNS to static ones on my iPad?

I access internet at my workplace with an iPad that has workplace profile installed on it. This allows me to automatically connect to the company wifi, along with their own DNS settings. If I change these settings to a static address, would I be able to have a bit more privacy when I access the web, or will all my activity still be monitored by the company?

Definitions of and difference between adaptive online adversary and adaptive offline adversary?

I recently started learning about randomized online algorithms, and the Wikipedia definitions for the three adversary models are very unhelpful to put it mildly. From poking around I think I have a good understanding of what an oblivious adversary is. From my understanding, the oblivious adversary must determine the “worst possible input sequence” before we even start running our algorithm. Let $ I_w$ denote the worst possible input sequence this adversary comes up with. (I.e., the input sequence that produces the greatest gap between the best that can be done and what we expect our algorithm to do.)

We then say that our algorithm is $ c$ -competitive (for a minimization problem) under this adversary if $ $ E[Alg(I_w)] \le c \cdot Opt(I_w) + b$ $ where $ c,b$ are some constants, $ E[Alg(I_w)]$ is the expected value of our algorithm on the input, and $ Opt(I_w)$ is the cost if we had made perfect decisions. (I.e., if the problem went offline.)

My confusion concerns the adaptive online and adaptive offline adversaries. I neither fully understand their definitions nor the difference between them. I will list my confusions directly below.

  • As I understand it, both of these adversaries somehow build the input sequences as your online algorithm runs. This says before you create the input at time $ t$ , unlike in the case of the oblivious adversary, both the adaptive online and adaptive offline adversaries have access to the outcomes of your algorithm at time steps $ 1, \ldots , t-1$ . Then it says that in both cases the adversary “incurs the costs of serving the requests online.” The difference being that for the online adaptive adversary, it “will only receive the decision of the online algorithm after it decided its own response to the request.” Does this mean that the difference is that the offline adaptive adversary can see how your algorithm performs during future steps? Or just the present step? But then why is it still incurring the cost of serving requests online?
  • This source contradicts the source above. It says that the adaptive offline adversary “is charged the optimum offline cost for that sequence.” Like I said previously, the previously source says both incur “the cost of serving the requests online.” What does it even mean to incur the cost of serving requests online vs. offline? Which is correct?
  • This takes a completely different tack and talks about knowing randomness (online adaptive) vs. knowing “random bits” (offline adaptive). Is this equivalent somehow? How so?
  • How does the definition of the competitive ratio change for these two adversaries? Most sources I looked at just defined the competitive ratio for the oblivious adversary.

A simple example of each to illustrate the difference would be much appreciated. Thanks for the help!

What is the difference between rateless and online encoding?

Definitions of Rateless encoding and Online encoding are as follows.

Error-correcting codes that employ no fixed block length are called rateless or fountain codes.

Online encoding refers to the property that a symbol is encoded at once and without knowledge of previous encodings.

Do both properties indicate the same thing? Are Fountain codes both rateless and online?