Massive slowdown after doing an ALTER to change index from int to bigint, with Postgres

I have a table like this:

create table trades (     instrument varchar(20)      not null,     ts         timestamp        not null,     price      double precision not null,     quantity   double precision not null,     direction  integer          not null,     id         serial         constraint trades_pkey             primary key ); 

I wanted to move the id to bigint, so I did:


then, after, I did:


and now, pretty much any large query, using the id in the WHERE expression, will be so slow it will timeout.

The database is AWS RDS Postgres.

Could it be a problem with the index itself?

Here is the query:

EXPLAIN (ANALYZE, BUFFERS)  SELECT id, instrument, ts, price, quantity, direction FROM binance_trades WHERE id >= 119655532 ORDER BY ts LIMIT 50; 

and output:

50 rows retrieved starting from 1 in 1 m 4 s 605 ms (execution: 1 m 4 s 353 ms, fetching: 252 ms)

INSERT INTO "MY_TABLE"("QUERY PLAN") VALUES ('Limit  (cost=0.57..9.86 rows=50 width=44) (actual time=86743.860..86743.878 rows=50 loops=1)'); INSERT INTO "MY_TABLE"("QUERY PLAN") VALUES ('  Buffers: shared hit=20199328 read=1312119 dirtied=111632 written=109974'); INSERT INTO "MY_TABLE"("QUERY PLAN") VALUES ('  I/O Timings: read=40693.524 write=335.051'); INSERT INTO "MY_TABLE"("QUERY PLAN") VALUES ('  ->  Index Scan using idx_extrades_ts on binance_trades  (cost=0.57..8015921.79 rows=43144801 width=44) (actual time=86743.858..86743.871 rows=50 loops=1)'); INSERT INTO "MY_TABLE"("QUERY PLAN") VALUES ('        Filter: (id >= 119655532)'); INSERT INTO "MY_TABLE"("QUERY PLAN") VALUES ('        Rows Removed by Filter: 119654350'); INSERT INTO "MY_TABLE"("QUERY PLAN") VALUES ('        Buffers: shared hit=20199328 read=1312119 dirtied=111632 written=109974'); INSERT INTO "MY_TABLE"("QUERY PLAN") VALUES ('        I/O Timings: read=40693.524 write=335.051'); INSERT INTO "MY_TABLE"("QUERY PLAN") VALUES ('Planning Time: 0.088 ms'); INSERT INTO "MY_TABLE"("QUERY PLAN") VALUES ('Execution Time: 86743.902 ms'); 

The activity on AWS:

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it’s a 2 cores, 8gb ARM server. Before I did the alter, the same request was < 1 sec. now, small requests are slow and long ones will timeout.

I’m having trouble making a paint trail effect in ShaderGraph. What am I doing wrong? Are there other ways of doing this?

Link to what I have so far:

Link to ShaderGraph of the original render texture: Link to ShaderGraph of the output render texture:

I’m trying to make the quad on the right leave a trail of cyan when the circle moves. Both squares use different materials.

I’ve tried using Graphics.Blit to draw the current texture onto a new one but it doesn’t create any painting effect (code:

The only progress I’ve gotten is from creating a RenderTexture and using SetPixel in a C# script but its very inefficient and slows down my computer too much:

I’ve been going about this for weeks. What am I doing wrong? What are the other options I have?

I would like to avoid writing shader code if possible. I’m looking for relatively simple and easy to understand solutions.

Doing add_rewrite_rule only for specific post type

so I have these two rules for projects CPT.

function addMyRules(){      // variables     add_rewrite_tag('%eventid%','([^&]+)');     add_rewrite_tag('%version%','([^&]+)');      // release-template rewrite     add_rewrite_rule('^projects/([^/]*)/([^/]*)/?$  ','index.php?projects=$  matches[1]&version=$  matches[2]','top');     add_rewrite_rule('^projects/([^/]*)/releases/?$  ','index.php?projects=$  matches[1]&version=releases','top');      flush_rewrite_rules(); }  add_action( 'init', 'addMyRules' ); 

But I have to get rid of that /projects/ prefix for some reason. However if I remove it, we end up having a problem that any page that has .com/something/else format would trigger rewrite.

Any way I could loop thru that custom post type and allow rewrite to run only if first var is one of post slugs?


Invisibility NOT doing more than exactly what the spells says it does

Please help settle this long running dispute regarding how the invisibility spell works. Invisibility when cast on an object makes the object vanish from sight.

However a fellow players seems insistent on claiming this also provides an additional property not detailed in the spell description. Namely, for example, if the spell is cast on a closed door. the door vanishes from sight revealing the room or area beyond.

My counter to this is to point to the fact invisibility is of the illusion school and the property he is assuming the invisibility spell additionally possesses belongs fundamentally in the divination school.

A ring of X Ray vision for example relies on the spell True Seeing which is of the divination school. Similarly Clairaudience/Clairvoyance, a spell by its effect that would more adequately reflect the ability to see in to an area that is blocked to line of sight is also of the divination (scrying) school.

Is there a general rule regarding exceptions I can point to, that states along the lines of if an exception isn’t documented then it isn’t a principle of the game rule?

I think his problem is that he’s seen invisibility depicted in certain popular media such as sci-fi and fantasy films and assumed that the D&D invisibility spell must work like that by reference and inference.

Can I as a Bloodhunter create mutagens without doing a short or long rest?

As a 2020 version of the Bloodhunter/mutagen order, at lvl 3 I can create one mutagens in a short/long rest.

I read this handbook:

As a possible fix: Instead of preparing your mutagens during a rest, you prepare reagents for mutagens.

Creating a mutagen requires one minute of uninterrupted work with these reagents and a set of alchemist’s tools. This allows the Blood Hunter a bit more flexibility with their mutagens, but not so much that they can change them during combat."

I don´t really understand where he gets that with the reagents. I can´t find it in the books and nothing about it on the internet.

This way I could do a 1 min pause and prepare the mutagen without doing a short rest.

I hope you can help me to understand it better.

One PC doing too much damage

I just took over as DM for our group. The previous DM allowed our ranger to purchase a significant amount of Wyvern poison at the end of the last adventure to dip his arrows in. With this poison, the ranger is doing 7d6 poison damage when he hits.

Our characters are all level 5 and 6 so this is obviously a significant amount of damage for this level. I’m worried by simply upping the AC of NPCs, no one else will be able to hit. It feels a little cheap to give the majority of NPCs poison resistance.

Any tips on how to combat this issue?

What I’m considering: Our barbarian has an evil, sentient sword. My thought was while the group is traveling and asleep, the evil sword has become jealous of the amount of damage the range is dealing so the sword mind controls the barbarian to get up and dump most of the poison out the back of the caravan they’ll be traveling in.

Is this too brutal to do to the ranger??

what wrong am i doing with SOAP request, getting error invalid timeout formats [closed]

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?><soap:Envelope xmlns:soap=""><soap:Header><SecurityHeader xmlns=""><UserName>2143883</UserName><Password><![CDATA[I3zt!7&W]]></Password></SecurityHeader></soap:Header><soap:Body><SubmitSync xmlns=""><request><![CDATA[ISA*00*          *00*          *ZZ*EXPEDIUM       *30*204202692      *200904*0419*^*00501*007281118*0*P*:~GS*HS*EXPEDIUM*204202692*20200904*0419*7281119*X*005010X279A1~ST*270*007281120*005010X279A1~BHT*0022*13*7281120*20200904*0419~HL*1**20*1~NM1*PR*2*BCBS OF NORTH CAROLINA*****PI*10383~HL*2*1*21*1~NM1*1P*2*BEAUFORT COUNTY HEALTH DEPARTMENT*****XX*1679576763~REF*TJ*566001521~PRV*PE*PXC*261QP0905X~HL*3*2*22*0~TRN*1*1013076869*9919649646~NM1*IL*1*BROWN*JEAN*M***MI*KBOW1747326401~REF*SY*141117752~DMG*D8*19650504*F~DTP*291*D8*20200904~EQ*30~SE*16*007281120~GE*1*7281119~IEA*1*007281118]]></request><requestFormat>EDI</requestFormat><responseFormat>EDI</responseFormat><synchronousTimeout>00:01:00</synchronousTimeout><submissionTimeout>00:01:00</submissionTimeout></SubmitSync></soap:Body></soap:Envelope>  Response ----------- <faultstring>Invalid Timeout Format: , Valid Format: d.hh:mm:ss, Note: Hours &lt;= 23, Minutes &lt;= 59, Seconds &lt;= 59</faultstring>  please advise on this 

How powerful can a 20th-level Wizard make a 1st-level Fighter without allowing him to realize it is the Wizard’s doing?

A 20th level Wizard makes a bet with another 20th level Wizard – he has to make his grandson succeed on a difficult mission. Without allowing his grandson (a first level Fighter) or his grandson’s compatriots (a first level Rogue, Bard, and Druid) to realize that the Wizard is secretly aiding them, or doing anything to defeat their foes directly, or helping anyone but his grandson (these are all terms of the bet).

To clarify –

  • This Wizard can cast spells on his grandson, only. He can’t Dominate the monsters or Disintegrate locked doors.
  • His grandson has to defeat the challenges (the Wizard can’t even weaken them).
  • Neither his grandson, or any of his party members, can realize or even suspect that someone is aiding them.

Luckily the grandson and his entire party not only lack Spellcraft but also Knowledge: Arcana. However they don’t lack basic induction – suddenly being able to fly or shoot fireballs is likely to raise their suspicion. A magic sword left leaning casually against a door would certainly count as a fail.

So given this situation, with a level 20 Wizard who is unafraid to spend resources to win this bet with his buddy (xp, magic items, scrolls, favours) what can he do to make his grandson’s party succeed at an adventure that may have CR 5-6 encounters or worse?

For the sake of this example, assume the wizard has access to whatever feats, spells, or wealth he needs to achieve this difficult task – he’s using optimization tricks to rebuild or has his own time-slowed demiplane or whatever, he’s a Tricky Wizard and not just a fireball-slinger.

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