A lot of my windows drivers have expired dates for the certificate, and some are not even signed, is this normal? [migrated]

I just gathered all the drivers in my system32/drivers folder and checked their certificate (my windows is updated and its a windows 10 x64)

But i found that so many of them have expired certificate! and some are not even signed! (pictures included)

so my questions are :

  1. Is this normal? if not, what should i do? and if not, then why are the expiration date expired?

  2. How are these drivers are able to get loaded when they have no certificate or its expired? my system is W10 x64 with secure boot enabled, i thought you can only load signed drivers with valid certificates?

  3. What is the role of these countersignatures put in simply? i tried reading MSDN and other websites but couldn’t understand whats the need of this?

here are some examples

WindowsTrustedRTProxy.sys (countersignature is also expired) :

enter image description here

winusb.sys (no certificate) :

enter image description here

Are port and miniport drivers protected by patchguard in windows?

I’m planning to write a Driver that unhooks the rootkit hooks in the miniport layer (hooks of device objects or major function array)

but i want my driver to be generic and work in most windows versions and both 32 and 64 bit windows

the problem is patchguard, so will patch guard block attempts to modify the memory image of the miniport drivers?

you might be asking how the rootkit patched it in the first place then, its a bootkit so it bypassed the patchguard protections but didn’t disable it.

and if it is protected by patch guard, then how can i unhook the hooks in the driver module?!

Legality & security standards of sending SSN / Drivers License via email

I am building a website for use in the state of Ohio where users enter their last 4 digits of SSN or their Driver’s License number. This data is submitted to the webserver which generates a PDF with the information included on it. The PDF is then emailed to the user.

Are there security standards that govern how this type of sensitive data is handled, especially concerning email?

Also are there potential legal issues / concerns in building an application like this?

Thanks,

Mike

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How to export Blender shape key drivers to Unity?

I created a character in Blender with about I am using drivers because the regular Blend shapes seemed (unless I was mistaken–?) to interfere with all of my animations. When I export the FBX to Unity there is no deformation happening at all. How can I successfully import the blend shapes I made with the drivers? If I can’t, what can I do?

enter image description here

Rendered version

Would like to see this: Hardware -> Available Drivers

Notes on this site suggest that I can see a list of all hardware + avaliable drivers in software manager under additional drivers. I only see broadcom wifi+ some drivers. Where are the other drivers, such as display?. I have a dell Inspiron 9400, 32 bit. I just installed Ubuntu 16.04 and ugraded to 18.04. I have a ati mobility radeon x1400 and I am interested in testing drivers other than the default. I also have a usb 1200 dual band A/C adapter. I want to add a driver to that as well.

Can someone point me in the right direction?

My Aloha, in advance…