Overview of aluminum alloy mechanical properties during and after fires

Overview of aluminum alloy mechanical properties during and after fires
Aluminum alloys are increasingly being used in a broad spectrum of load-bearing applications such as lightweight structures, light rail, bridge decks, marine crafts, and off-shore platforms. A major concern in the design of land-based and marine aluminum structures is fire safety, at least in part due to mechanical property reduction at temperatures significantly lower than that for steel. A substantial concern also exists regarding the integrity and stability of an aluminum structure following a fire; however, little research has been reported on this topic. This paper provides a broad overview of the mechanical behavior of aluminum plates both during and following fire. The two aluminum alloys discussed in this work, 5083-H116 and 6061-T651, were selected due to their prevalence as lightweight structural alloys and their differing strengthening mechanisms (5083 – strain hardened, 6061 – precipitation hardened). The high temperature quasi-static mechanical and creep behavior are discussed. A creep model is presented to predict the secondary and tertiary creep strains followed by creep rupture. The residual mechanical behavior following fire (with and without applied stress) is elucidated in terms of the governing kinetically-dependent microstructural mechanisms. A review is provided on modeling techniques for residual mechanical behavior following fire including empirical relations, physically-based constitutive models, and finite element implementations. The principal objective is to provide a comprehensive description of select aluminum alloys, 5083-H116 and 6061-T651, to aid design and analysis of aluminum structures during and after fire.
The materials included in this study are 5083-H116 and 6061-T651. These alloys were investigated due to their prevalence as common structural alloys, especially in lightweight transportation and structural applications, and their different strengthening mechanisms. 5083 is strengthened by strain hardening (cold work). It is a weldable, moderate strength alloy which exhibits good corrosion resistance in the H116 condition. 6061 is strengthened by precipitation hardening (heat treatment). It is a weldable, high strength alloy which also exhibits good corrosion resistance. The chemical composition of the alloys are shown in Table 1.
A review of the literature devoted to the problem of efficiency of the use of aluminum alloys in automotive structures is presented. Requirements are formulated on the structure and properties of alloys for cold rolling of car parts. The results of a study of sheets from AV alloy with a fine-grained recrystallized structure and adaptability to manufacture, which makes the sheets suitable for automotive panels, and mechanical properties at the level of steel sheets after aging in the process of drying of the lacquer coating, are presented.
Aluminum is a very light metal with a specific weight of 2.7 g/cm3, about a third of that of steel. This cuts the costs of manufacturing with aluminum. Again, its use in vehicles reduces dead-weight and energy consumption while increasing load capacity. This also reduces noise and improves comfort levels.

Its strength can be adapted to the application required by modifying the composition of its alloys. Aluminum-magnesium-manganese alloys are an optimum mix of formability with strength, while aluminum-magnesium-silicon alloys are ideal for automobile body sheets, which show good age-hardening when subjected to the bake-on painting process.
Aluminum naturally generates a protective thin oxide coating which keeps the metal from making further contact with the environment. It is particularly useful for applications where it is exposed to corroding agents, as in kitchen cabinets and in vehicles. In general, aluminum alloys are less corrosion-resistant than pure aluminum, except for marine magnesium-aluminum alloys. Different types of surface treatment such as anodising, painting or lacquering can further improve this property.
Aluminum is an excellent heat and electricity conductor and in relation to its weight is almost twice as good a conductor as copper. This has made aluminum the first choice for major power transmission lines. It is also a superb heat sink for many applications that require heat to be drained away rapidly, such as in computer motherboards and LED lights.
Aluminum is ductile and has a low melting point and density. It can be processed in several ways in a molten condition. Its ductility allows aluminum material to be formed close to the end of the product’s design. Whether sheets, foil, geometrical configurations, tubes, rods or wires, aluminum is up to them all.
Aluminum foil is only 0.007 mm in thickness, but is still durable and completely impermeable, keeping any food wrapped in it free of external tastes or smells. It keeps out ultraviolet rays as well.

Moreover, the metal itself is non-toxic and odorless, which makes it ideal for packaging sensitive products such as food or pharmaceuticals. The fact that recycled aluminum can be used reduces the carbon footprint for this stage of food and beverage manufacturers as well.
Aluminum is 100% recyclable and recycled aluminum is identical to the virgin product. This makes it a much more cost-effective source material for production runs. The re-melting of aluminum requires little energy: only about 5% of the energy required to produce the primary metal initially is needed in the recycling process.
Since the last decades of the 20th century, aluminum sheet has proven to be one of the most versatile metallic materials in those applications where weight reduction plays a fundamental role. The possibility of recycling aluminum alloys an indefinite number of times is another of its great attractions. Currently, the development of new alloys that improve mechanical properties and corrosion resistance while maintaining a light weight is one of the important lines of research and development work. At the same time, new processes are being developed to manufacture better-performing aluminum-based components, overcoming difficulties in casting, the poor ductility of aluminum alloys at room temperature, and its challenging weldability. Among these processes, solid phase processing, semi-solid processing, the liquid die forging process, powder metallurgy, sheet hydroforming, incremental forming, additive manufacturing and friction stir welding and its variants allow for dissimilar joints.

Many of the advances produced in the design and processing of alloys have been obtained thanks to modeling and simulation techniques. These techniques make it possible to describe everything from phase diagrams of new compositions based on thermodynamic calculations to the flow of material during the deformation and forming processes. To face the future challenges in the aluminum bar, it is necessary to improve knowledge of the micro- and mesoscopic mechanisms that explain the mechanical behavior of aluminum alloys. A deeper understanding of these mechanisms is necessary both in components in real use, and during the manufacturing processes. Additionally, the correlation between aluminum alloy properties and their microstructure must be considered in a unified way to explain the mechanical behavior in volume and surface and against corrosion.

In this Special Issue, we openly invite contributions from researchers working on all the different aspects of this ever-challenging material.

The present article demonstrates the procedure for fabrication of aluminum alloy 2014 based metal matrix composites having particulates of silicon carbide as reinforcement. Using the stir casting route, three different compositions of aluminum alloy metal matrix composites were fabricated. Microstructure of as-cast composites revealed a homogeneous distribution of silicon carbide particles along with few agglomeration and casting defects. Friction stir processing was performed to avoid such agglomeration and casting defects present in as-cast composites. The influence of friction stir processing parameters, that is, rotational speed and transverse speed on metallurgical properties, was investigated. Two combinations of rotational speed and transverse speed were considered: (i) 270 rpm and 78 mm/min and (ii) 190 rpm and 50 mm/min, respectively. As a result of friction stir processing, the microstructure of processed composites revealed the presence of fine silicon carbide particles along with the magnificent reduction in grain size. Composites processed with a rotational speed of 270 rpm and transverse speed of 78 mm/min were found to have higher grain refinement and as a result of this, the enhancement in microhardness was also observed. Except for a few cases, the average microhardness of all processed composites under both processed conditions was still lower than that of as–cast composites.
If you’re like many people, when you hear the word “aluminum”, you think of everyday convenience items that, while incredibly useful, don’t exactly convey a high-strength image. And it’s true – aluminum is a highly versatile metal – meaning it can be processed to be thin, lightweight, bendable and even crushable by human hands.

What’s less well-understood is that aluminum tube can also be some of the toughest stuff on earth. Often, the metal is used in applications where high-strength and durability are the most important considerations – from cars and trucks to building material to military vehicles. You likely trust aluminum to keep you safe and secure dozens of times a day without even knowing it.
Aluminum is about one-third the weight of steel, meaning parts can be made thicker and stronger while still reducing weight in vehicles and other applications. Depending on the alloy and processing technique used, pound for pound aluminum can be forged to be just as strong if not stronger than some steel.

Aluminum is already the second-most-used material by automakers, so your car or truck likely has a lot of aluminum in it right now, protecting you from hazards on the road. Engineers know how to work with aluminum to make parts that perform as well or better than steel parts – all while reducing vehicle weight. Aluminum is highly effective at absorbing crash energy, protecting passengers in the event of an accident. And lighter aluminum vehicles improve performance.  Better handling and shorter stopping distances help drivers avoid accidents to begin with.

Aluminum is used for window frames and curtain wall in some of the world’s tallest skyscrapers – maybe even the office building you’re sitting in right now. This versatile metal is used to make planes, trains, buses, trucks – even ocean liners!

In short, every day, people around the world trust the strength of aluminum – whether they know it or not.

Unity2D: Character goes up and down during idle animation

My character is idling but his feet are changing position during the animation: it seems he’s floating. I would like to have the character with his feet stuck.

Video to visualize the issue: https://vimeo.com/568057364

As you can see, the feet are going up and down. I’ve also tried to animate the collider in order to follow the feet, but that attempt didn’t solve the issue.

Failover an Availability Group during a backup

This is a scenario I hope won’t happen, but if I was to perform a manual failover on an availability group halfway through a database backup will this cause the backup to fail or would it continue? I’ve been looking through MS documentation but can’t find this specific case.

I’m running SQL 2017 in an active – active environment with the listener in a third location. (synchronous commit)

(Backups are utilizing the Ola Hallengren scripts)

Oracle 11gR2 => Oracle Data Pump (expdp, impdp) => can backup be safely taken during runtime

until now I create a daily Logical backup backup of my Oracle 11gR2 Database at midnight while the database is running but the client application is in an idle state so that no queries are executed on the database.

Now I also want to implement a second Backup during the Day while the Database and the Client application are both up and running and queries (select/update/insert/delete) are executed.

Because I have already well tested Backup and Restore Scripts I want to continue using expdp and impdp.

This second "during the day" backup would not be directly imported in the production system after a potential data loss. I would import it on a mirrored test system and then manually use OracleSqlExplorer to query the lost data.

This leads to the following questions:

  1. If I use expdp to perform a backup during the database runtime is it guaranteed that the database where I take the backup from and SQL statements are executed during the backup process does contain its integrity and consistency ?
  2. Do I need to add certain Parameters to the expdp command to guarantee consistency ? I found this:

"expdp options for creating a consistent export dump: FLASHBACK_SCN, FLASHBACK_TIME, CONSISTENT=Y"

So far I use this linux shell script:

$  ORACLE_HOME/bin/expdp \"$  USERNAME/$  PASSWORD as sysdba\" SCHEMAS=<csv list of schemas> REUSE_DUMPFILES=Yes DIRECTORY=backup DUMPFILE=$  BACKUP_NAME.dmp 
  1. Can I use a backup create with expdp during the database runtime as a valid source for a impdp without having to worry about integrity and consistency ? For question number 2 I found a thread that says NO

Can firearms be used during close combat?

Fairly new Keeper here.

During the last session, almost all of the players used their readied small firearms (pistols) during close quarters combat. Together with firing multiple shots when it was their turn, they seemed to have a giant advantage over small weapons, like a knife or club.

So, is there a rule for using a readied firearm during a brawl? I can’t imagine that one would be able to easily gun the opponent down (as long as there are still bullets loaded), rather than being hindered to shoot (e.g., both characters struggle for weapon control).

Can players be forced to use their hand combat skill?

How should my Warlock player use their familiar during battles?

One of my players has a Warlock character and is using Pact of the Chain for their Pact Boon. They most often cast a pseudodragon as their familiar, but neither of us are sure about how they should be using the pseudodragon during fights. Does the familiar get its own turn in the turn order? Or can the familiar only act when the Warlock gives up their action slot? I read the PHB content, but I’m still unclear how/if the pseudodragon should be used in fights.

When does a Taunt action take effect during starship combat?

According to Starfinder’s starship combat rules on the Captain’s Taunt action:

You can use the communications system to broadcast a taunting message to the enemy vessel. You select an enemy vessel and a phase of combat (engineering, helm, or gunnery), and then attempt a Bluff or Intimidate check (DC = 15 + 1-1/2 × the enemy starship’s tier). If you are successful, each enemy character acting during the selected phase takes a –2 penalty to all checks for 1d4 rounds; the penalty increases to –4 if the enemy’s check is made as part of a push action. Once used against an enemy starship, regardless of the outcome, taunt can’t be used against that starship again during the same combat.

My question is when do these penalties take effect?

Example of why this is unclear: In round 1’s helm phase, on behalf of an NPC crew, the GM rolls for the piloting check, a piloting stunt, and a science officer action. Then, after these rolls have been made but during the same helm phase, the player Captaining the PC ship successfully Taunts the NPC ship and rolls a 3 for rounds of effect.

Does the -2 penalty apply retroactively to the GM’s die rolls in round 1 and then continue for rounds 2 and 3? Does the penalty last until round 3, but the NPC crew escaped the effects for round 1 because the GM rolled before the player? Or does the -2 penalty kick in at the beginning of round 2 and last until round 4, guaranteeing the NPCs suffer three rounds of effects even though they avoided the penalty in round 1?

When should initiative be rolled during a surprise attack?

This question does a good job explaining how surprise attacks work for the most part, but I’m not sure how such an attack would actually play out, here is what happened in my last game:

There was a group of enemy creatures, and the heroes were successfully avoiding notice nearby (I guess they were effectively hiding), watching the creatures and planning what to do while unnoticed.

After agreeing upon a plan, one of the PCs made a ranged attack against an enemy. This catched the enemy flat-footed against the attack, but the PC became observed by everyone after resolving it.

I decided to roll initiative and start the encounter at this point since it made the most sense at the time, but after reading the rules I’m not sure if this played out correctly.

Should initiative have been rolled just before the attack? This seems unfair to the heroes, since according to Avoid Notice it would force another Stealth check to see if the enemies notice them, but the heroes have not done anything yet to break their hiding. And then, if they succeed on the check, what is the point of the enemy turns?, since the heroes are still unnoticed, the enemies would do nothing until the heroes act.

This leads me to believe that the encounter should have started at the moment the heroes spotted the enemy: initiative is rolled according to Avoid Notice and if the heroes succeed on the Stealth check against the Perception DC of the enemies, they remain unnoticed. And all the watching and planning would have ocurred in Encounter Mode (a very long and pointless encounter for the most part).

If this is the correct approach, the heroes could decide to coordinate and attack all at the same time, by delaying to set their turns one after the other, and readying an attack just before the start of the turn of the first hero, so everyone would use their readied attack and then have their full turn before any enemy gets to act. Is this right?

How do I keep the narrative alive during combats?

For years, I’ve had trouble keeping the players engaged in the narrative of combat and what happens during their turns.

After the first 4 turns or so, it becomes hard to imagine what everyone does and even my players forget about their allies, and I forget about the villain’s allies as well. After a couple rounds it starts becoming a "you hit with a raise, well, throw 1d6 more", and I’m left wondering how I can make things seem more dynamic and cool, however I find it very hard to wait for players to end turns, throw dices, and then proceed to imagine and narrate what they do, it also makes players frustrated as they just want me to be down with other player’s narrative and move on to their own turn.

Where and How are the legendary characters during Rime of the Frostmaiden?

I’m DMing ROTF for players that have a very deep knowledge of the lore of the Forgotten Realms, it doesn’t bother me at all, but I would like at least to be prepared enough anyway to properly address the campaign theme. I’ve read "The Crystal Shard", and keep digging into wiki and other sources of lore, but there is still a lot of things that I don’t know for sure.

Massive spoiler for the Forgotten Realms books or some other campaign books.

About Bruenor, Catti-Brie & Regis:

About Drizzt:

About the Dwarf, and more specifically the Battlehammer clan?

Overall do you have any advice on how to proceed with lore accuracy in the campaign, and some sources of lore I could read in preparation