MacBook Pro 8,2 (Early 2011, 15” Unibody 2.3 GHz i7) – OS crashes randomly, after log in screen goes all white

I have a Macbook Pro, randomly started running into issues when logging in after start up. Occasionally will get the desktop to load but shortly thereafter the OS crashes leading to a screen with multiple colored lines which sometimes resolve after varying amounts of time. Following the crash and after re-boot/log-in the screen will go to all white.

After many of these crash sequences I booted into Recovery Mode and did a complete wipe of the harddrive with a fresh install of macOS (Sierra). I created a new user profile and logged in. All seemed well with normal use but after about 15 minutes of function as usual it went back to the same crashing sequence and white screen after log in.

Suspecting a hardware problem, I ran AHT (apple hardware test) and cycled 4 times with the Extended Testing which read “No trouble found.” for each cycle. Subsequent to this and suspecting a hard drive issues that is simply not being picked up by the AHT I booted again into Recovery mode to try running first aid on my hard drive and noticed that it is registering and being completely used with no free space (after a complete wipe and reinstall of macOS…it should be essentially empty).

I figure the complete wipe and re-install of mac OS would have solved any software related trouble that could be leading to this issue. That being said, I’m leaning toward one of three potential hardware issues being the source of my woes: hard drive, logic board or RAM. Right now the hard drive is my top suspicion but the clean cycles of AHT is confusing me.

Any ideas on where I can go from here to try and narrow down the source of the problem before I go trying to get any of the hardware replaced?

Why did early telephones use a rotary dial instead of 10 individual buttons?

I was watching a video of little kids trying to figure out how to use a rotary phone, and it was not immediately clear to any of them how the rotary mechanism was supposed to work. That got me thinking: why was the rotary mechanism used in phones at all? It seems like individual buttons would be more intuitive to everyone and might even have less mechanical problems than a thing that has to rotate thousands and thousands of times over it’s lifetime. Why was that design choice made, why were they popular, and why did they stick around so long even after phones with buttons came on the market?

edit: The first touch tone phone was introduced by AT&T in 1963. Even thought integrated circuits weren’t practical for commercial use at that time, apparently transistors were:

By the early 1960s, low-cost transistors and associated circuit components made the introduction of touch-tone into home telephones possible. Extensive human factors tests determined the position of the buttons to limit errors and increase dialing speed even further. The first commercial touch-tone phones were a big hit in their preview at the 1962 Seattle World’s Fair. (1)

The fact that Bell Labs had invented the transistor probably helped that process along. And I understand that the change in how telephone networks worked (from pulse dialing to DTMF) drove a change in the electrical design of phones. But while transistors let them make that protocol change, was it really impossible to implement pulse dialing using buttons but not transistors? From Wikipedia:

In the 1950s, AT&T conducted extensive studies of product engineering and efficiency and concluded that push-button dialing was preferable to rotary dialing (2).

That suggests the designers didn’t know that buttons were better than a dial (if they did know, why would they have done extensive studies?). It also suggests that it WAS possible to make a phone with buttons. They would have had to build button prototypes for their studies, right?

(1) http://www.corp.att.com/attlabs/reputation/timeline/64touch.html

(2) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Push-button_telephone

How to “not” consume all the budget at early stage on a day at Google Adwords?

Let me introduce me with greetings since I am new here.

I am currently setting up the budget of Google Adwords at 200 dollars at a day. ( Say, 6,000 USD a month. )

Although, I am Japanese and the words may be different in English version, let me ask here since we don’t have a specific oriented site in our country.

I am setting the target time zone at from around 10am to 21 am ( around ) every day.

But the huge flux of clicks eats all the budget set to each day and we are unable to display the campaign at the later stage of a day.

Is this a mistake of the portfolio management?

Or since I struck a new campaign, is the Adwords still “learning”? ( Some words already have the quality score of 7 but others 1-2, although click percentage is over 2%. )

Should I wait for sometime or do something else?

Tkfilediaolog is opening up too early

I have 5 buttons each with a function as a command and the function has a parameter and I realized that if I put the parameter in before I run the program the Tkfiledialog associated with the function will open up immediately upon running the program. Below is the code to one button.

this program would work before I added the parameter but I want more functionality and the parameters are needed for more functionality.

photo_name_list = ["", "", "", "", ""]  def find_photos(position):     photo = tkfd.askopenfile()     file_path = photo.name     photo_name_list[position] = photo.name  b1_add = tk.Button(canvas, text="+",                    height = 2, width = 5, command = find_photos(0)) canvas.create_window(WINDOW_WIDTH//5, WINDOW_HEIGHT//5, window = b1_add)  

In the end, I want the button to be on the canvas and when I click it I want it to open the file dialog and I pick a picture and the file path is added to the array, but depending on the button I want the picture to go to different parts of the array.

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What UX research methods and approaches would you recommend to use during early stage of product development?

Imagine that your company approaching new market in new country and need to figure out: – What’s the basic requirements for future product? – How to define future positioning of a product? – What the value proposition, user experience, user performance do have other players on the market?

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