Are the Power Word spells especially easy to identify?

There are various high level spells named “Power Word: X”. They are all verbal-only spells (except Power Word: Heal), and tend to have the following text in them(…except Power Word: Heal):

You speak a word of power that [has the effect of the spell’s name]

Assume for the purpose of the question that the rules from Xanathar’s Guide on spell identification are in use.

Do these properties (verbal only, verbal component is a single word rather than multiple) make these spells unusually easy to identify – not as a specific spell, but as “one of the Power Word spells”?

In other words, consider the following scenario:

Spellcaster A is facing off against spellcaster B. On B’s turn, B utters a single arcane word, and seems to not be using any somatic or material components for their spell.

Is it reasonable for A to deduce, without the use of a reaction, “ah, I reckon the single word and nothing else means it’s one of the Power Word spells. I had better Counterspell using a high level slot”?

Is there a constant-space accumulator for a set of numbers to make it easy to test for set membership?

My question: What data structure or algorithm could I use to solve the following set membership problem efficiently?


Imagine I am generating a random 32-bit integer every second, and adding it to a list of N integers. Imagine that each time I generate an integer, I ship it (and any other information I might have easy access to) off to a client. Later, the client will submit an integer (along with any other information I have given it), and I want to be able to quickly determine if a given integer has ever appeared in my set, but I want to do it in constant time, using a small, constant amount of memory. In other words, I don’t want to just keep all of my generated numbers in a list or hash table and check the submitted integer against this list. Ideally, adding a number to this set is a constant-time operation. I do not ever need to delete numbers from the set.

Option 1: I could use a bloom filter and add each number to the bloom filter. Unfortunately, the set membership test would be probabilistic, but I could make the filter big enough to reduce my probability of a false positive quite low. I’m open to this approach, but want to know what other options I could have.

Option 2: I have been reading about cryptographic accumulators. If each of the numbers I was generating were prime, I believe I could use an RSA accumulator to store a single accumulator value of constant size. Each time I add a new prime to my set, I add it to the accumulator, then I generate its witness as well and ship both the number and the witness to my client. Later, the client would submit the integer it is testing and the witness, and I would be able to quickly determine if the number being submitted is in fact a member of my set or not. Possible problems: I need to be able to hash to a prime number deterministically. (Not the end of the world, but adds complexity) I think I have to update my witness values as I add new values to the accumulator. Lastly: My understanding of accumulators is rudimentary.

Possible modifications: 1: Would this be any easier if subsequent values in my chain of numbers were somehow dependent upon previous values in some way? You could imagine some sort of non-cryptographic hash chain, whose current hash value includes enough information about its previous values that it could quickly determine, “Yep, if my current hash value is X, and you submit Y, Y definitely was a previous member of my chain.” 2: If I understand them correctly, accumulators seem like a very space-efficient way to store sets of prime numbers (and perhaps other values), but in the literature they all assume potential adversaries. In my case, I don’t need my witness be be unforgeable, so I would think that would make the problem much easier to solve. Perhaps it just means that I get to use smaller constants (so I don’t have to use RSA-2048?). Or perhaps this simplifies my problem even further? 3: What if the “random” values I was generating were known to be increasing, or were simply timestamps? (I still need to know if that particular timestamp were ever used)

Related problems: This seems a lot like having a lot of hash values in a Merkle tree or hash chain (blockchain), and wanting to be able to determine if a particular hash value were ever seen in the chain, without having to store every value that had been seen in the chain. I’m hopeful that with the additional concept of generating a “witness” value of some sort to be stored along with the number, the server can make a membership determination with much less overhead than having to store all of the numbers. This also seems similar to a verifiable log or authenticated dictionary.

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Connection Information To perform the requested action – Is there an easy way to fix this?

It’s been about one year since I created my last WordPress website. I’m using GVO as my host and was able to install WordPress without any problems but when I try to change themes or add plugins I get this message.

Connection Information To perform the requested action, WordPress needs to access your web server. Please enter your FTP credentials to proceed. If you do not remember your credentials, you should contact your web host.

When I enter my ftp information, wordpress says that I have the wrong username/pw or it says that the folder wp-content doesn’t exist.

Is there an easy way to fix this problem in 2020 that doesn’t require having to go into the websites code?

I’ve noticed the same messages with my other GVO websites so I’m also wondering if it’s an issue with their server?

Thank you,

Jeremy

What are easy ways to familiarise yourself with the DnD world/universe?

Recently my RPG playgroup has been thinking about exploring what is for us unchartered territory and try out some new RPGs that come with a heavy “high fantasy, high magic” feel to them.

One of the obvious candidates is Dungeons and Dragons. Quite apart from the question which of the many many versions one could get themselves invested in (I assume there are already questions on that, if not I might open one in the future) the issue is that apart from me no-one at our table has the slightest idea of the DnD world/universe.

And I’m not meaning having full insights into every aspect of the magical, theological, ecclesiastical, interplanary and mundane goings on – but even just a general “feel” to it. Our other players have raised some concerns that this makes it quite difficult for them to get interested in the system and invested in new characters and a new campaign.

  • How could our players familiarise themselves with the DnD world in a way that would help them get some first insights, a general “feel” for the place?

Criteria: While I could of course suggest our players a 200-hours Baldur’s Gate playthrough, and I’m sure there is plenty of 1500 page novels – but I fear that would be way to time-consuming. If possible I’m looking for some way that works on a time-budget. (Are there for example movies set in the DnD world that we could watch as a playgroup?)

Mobile phone Number Listings – An Easy Way to Obtain Detailed Info on Any Phone

It is safe to say that you are feeling suspicious that your adoration accomplice might be undermining you? Is your accomplice showing indications of unfaithfulness? Is it true that you are getting irritating phone number list calls regular or night and when you answer, they hang up the telephone? On account of the web, you would now be able to stop your doubts by counseling mobile phone number postings. 

In the event that your doubts are excessively solid and your accomplice denies doing anything incorrectly, you can attempt to access their phone and search for any numbers that are more than once dialed to or accepting calls from. Don’t simply remember them. Record them and afterward do a versatile number inquiry on the web. 

Maybe your need to do a cell number hunt isn’t as radical as an unfaithful accomplice. Perhaps you simply need to refresh your mailing list since you are arranging a wedding or a major occasion and you need to ensure everybody will get their solicitations. 

Despite what your purposes behind doing this are, you can discover a ton of data on the web and in particular, feel consoled that this information will be extremely precise and forward-thinking. 

Among the data that you will get is name and address, kind of telephone they use and transporter they are in contract with. Work status and other foundation data. 

The entirety of this you can do at home or your office and all you need is a PC and access to the web. From that point, it is going great and you will should simply include the telephone number that you have into the site and you will gain admittance to PDA number postings for all intents and purposes in a split second.

Is there an easy way to know what edition a sourcebook is?

I’ve recently started getting into World of Darkness and I’m realizing there are 5 different editions of sourcebooks:

  1. First edition
  2. Second edition
  3. Revised (3rd) edition
  4. V20 (4th) edition
  5. Fifth edition

Is there an easy way to know what edition a sourcebook is without having to look it up?

Like can you tell what edition it is by looking at the cover?

Set which is easy to sample, but difficult to sample from its complement

Given a set $ S \subseteq \{0,1\}^*$ , the algorithm $ A$ is a generator for $ S$ if given $ n$ random bits $ x \in \{0,1\}^n$ , $ A$ generates an element of $ S$ of size $ n$ , and $ A$ can generate at least $ \frac{2}{3}$ members of $ S$ of size $ n$ (for all $ n$ ). $ A$ does not have to be uniform.

Is there a set $ S$ such that there exists an efficient algorithm $ A$ such that for all $ n$ , $ A$ generates at least $ \frac{2}{3}$ members of $ S$ (of size $ n$ ), but any efficient algorithm for $ S^C$ can only generate at most $ \frac{1}{3}$ elements from $ S^C$ of size $ n$ (under complexity asuumptions)?