Does the Jack-Of-All-Trades edge grant basic proficiency in every language?

In Savage Worlds Deluxe, the Jack-Of-All-Trades edge grants the following benefit:

Any time he makes an unskilled roll for a Smarts-based skill, he may do so at d4 instead of the usual d4–2.

Languages fit under the category “Knowledge (Smarts)”, and so are Smarts-based skills. The chart for Languages says:

d4: The character can read, write, and speak common words and phrases

Does this mean Jack-Of-All-Trades edge provide the ability to read/write/speak common words and phrases in any language?

How to remove cycles from a directed graph by edge contraction?

We have cyclic directed graph (possibly disconnected). For cycles consisting of two vertices A->B and B->A, we replace them by a single vertex. In case of A->B, B->C, C->A we also replace them by one vertex. We replace N vertices when all reachable from each other. Edges leaving a vertex stay as edges leaving the group containing the vertex. For example,

digraph cyclic {         rankdir=BT; 01 2->3 3->2 5->2 6->4 8->3 9->4 a->4 a->9 9->a b->8 b->c c->b 6->7 7->8 8->6 } 

We must obtain

digraph acyclic {         rankdir=BT; 01 5->23 678->23 678->4 a9->4 bc->678 } 

How is algorithm? Practical application of problem: we have class where method depends from fields and other methods. How decomposite to max number smallest classes? we allow multiple inheritance, inheritance diamond, but not allow cycles.

what happens to max flow if we decrease the capacity of every edge by some constant?

Given a graph $ G = (V,A)$ , with source $ s$ , sink $ t$ , edge capacity larger than 1 (but not all equal), I know that if we decrease the capacity of one edge by 1, the $ s,t$ -maximum flow decreases by at most 1. But I would like to know what happens to max flow if we decrease (or increase) the capacity of all edges by 1. I’d appreciate any comments/insights on this. Thanks!

A heuristic for finding an edge cycle cover

I am working on a problem that considers the list of cycles that a certain vertex belongs to in a graph! After computing all simple cycles with Johnson algorithm, I realized that I don’t need them all but instead, for every vertex, a list of cycles covering the edges of its cycles would be enough! I made few searches and found out there is the Edge Cycle Cover and finding the minimum is NP-HARD problem. I’m not sure if it is exactly what I’m looking for. Also, I don’t want to process all the simple cycles returned cause it may increase the global algorithm complexity.

So, any help understanding this problem? Is there a heuristic to get only a subset of cycles for each vertex in the graph? it does not have to be minimal!

Action per target to initiate VS Edge

In the Cypher System rulebook, somes abilities (like Accelerate Third Tier Speaker) say instead of dealing efforts to decrase the difficulty, you can use it to affect more targets, but you must spend one action per target, and so one target per turn only.

But you can reduce cost with Edge, why would you make those efforts since you can just use the ability each turn, each time for one target, and each time using Edge to reduce.

To what extent would using the initiative system from Edge of the Empire in 5e break the game?

I’ve been checking out Star Wars – Edge of the Empire and I really like the initiative system used in it.

… Once all Initiative checks have been made, the CM notes down the results of each check and ranks them in order, from highest number of successes to lowest number of successes.

STEP 2: ASSIGN INITIATIVE SLOTS

Once the GM has determined the Initiative order, he notes which results were generated by Player Characters, and which results were generated by NPCs. The results generated by Player Characters become Player Character Initiative slots. The results generated by NPCs become NPC Initiative slots.

STEP 3: PARTICIPANTS TAKE TURNS

Beginning at the top of the Initiative order, the players and CM fill each Initiative slot one at a time with a character turn. If the Initiative slot is a Player Character Initiative slot, then the players agree on one Player Character to fill the slot from amongst the Player Characters who have not acted that round. That Player Character then takes this turn. If the Initiative slot is an NPC Initiative slot, then the CM chooses one NPC to fill the slot from amongst the NPCs who have not acted that round. That NPC then takes this turn.

In essence, players roll initiative ‘slots’ that can then be used by any player to take their turns each round.

I’m considering implementing this in my 5e campaign, as I’m not a huge fan of the static initiative rules they currently have. Players would roll for initiative as normal, but then would be able to freely choose their turn order within the rolled slots.

I realize this would be a significant step up in power for the PCs, as they would be able to much more consistently pull off synergies between classes that are highly dependent on turn order (eg. barbarian knocks enemy prone and rogue can get the sneak attack before the enemy stands back up), as well as increasing the potential effects of ‘until end of next turn’ features (eg. monk going first on round 1, using stunning strike, then going last on turn 2 so the enemy is effectively stunned for 2 rounds). However, I plan to combat this by having enemies able to use the same system to gain similar advantages.

My aim is to enable tactical choices regarding turn order and initiative, beyond those of the base rules.

Considering the above, to what extent would using this initiative system break/unbalance the game? I’m fine with an overall increase in power level, as I can adjust encounters etc. to suit but I’d like to avoid upsetting the class balance if possible.

Cost of Numenera “Disrupting Touch” ability if player has Edge in both Speed and Might?

Disrupting Touch is an ability that can only be used when the player has already declared a use of the “Phase Sprint” ability. The Player’s Handbook states for Phase Sprint:

Note that some of your other special abilities enable specific actions that you can take while using Phase Sprint. For instance, when using Disrupting Touch, you can make one touch attack while moving…”

and for Phase Sprint

You can turn your Phase Sprint into a melee attack by purposefully grazing another creature as you run.

The character in question has an Edge of 1 in Speed and an Edge of 1 in Might.

So the question is, are these played in combat as two actions, or one, and how is the cost paid? Is it:

  1. Phase Sprint is action 1 which costs 0 because of Speed Edge; Disrupting Touch can’t be done till next turn, but also costs 0 because of Might Edge; Phase Sprint continues until the attack is made.
  2. Phase Sprint is declared as an action, and its cost is zero (1 Edge in Speed), then Disrupting Touch is declared as a modification to the action but its cost is 1 Might (because Edge was already used during this turn). Phase Sprint ends at the end of the turn (in sync with the attack).
  3. Phase Sprint is declared as an action, and its cost is zero (1 Edge in Speed), then Disrupting Touch is declared as a modification to the action and its cost is zero (because of 1 Edge in Might). Phase Sprint ends in sync with the attack at the end of the turn.

The player would, of course, prefer #2, but we’d all prefer to be sure we applied the system’s rules properly.