Aluminum Foil Rolling Mill — Produce high-quality foils with high efficiency and low

Aluminum Foil Rolling Mill — Produce high-quality foils with high efficiency and low cost
As the requirements for aluminum foil output and quality continue to increase, the requirements for aluminum foil production equipment, such as aluminum strip and foils mill tools, are becoming more and more stringent. Today, rolling mills are required to produce foil products with a thickness of less than 6 microns and a width of more than 2 meters, and the speed should reach more than 2,000 meters per minute. In order to meet these requirements, the aluminum foil rolling mill is equipped with the most advanced high-speed rolling technology, and provides comprehensive process support, so that the rolling mill can be put into production at a record speed, and after changing the rolling mill settings, it can be produced from the first coil. The technical indicators of the qualified products for sale are better than the industry standards.
It’s a well-established question and one that we’ve been too afraid to ask our mothers: Should we use the shiny or the dull side of aluminum foil when we cook? And have we been doing it wrong this entire time?!
Concerned cooks, you can breathe a sigh of relief: As it turns out, there’s no “correct” side of aluminum foil to use when cooking so using it on either side is not one of the cooking mistakes that could ruin your food. According to the Huffington Post, they’re both equally effective at heating your food—so just choose whatever side you prefer.
If there’s no trick to it, then why, exactly, does aluminum foil have a shiny and a dull side in the first place? Experts at Reynold’s Kitchen say that the difference between the two sides is due to a manufacturing process called milling, during which heat and tension is applied to stretch and shape the foil. Two layers of foil are pressed together and milled at the same time, because otherwise, it would break.
“Where the foil is in contact with another layer, that’s the ‘dull’ side,” Reynold’s explains. “The ‘shiny’ side is the side milled without being in contact with another sheet of metal. The performance of the foil is the same, whichever side you use.”
But pay attention if you are using non-stick foil; in that case, there is a difference between the two sides. Since the non-stick coating is only applied to one side, you’ll want to use the dull side. Side note: There will be a label that designates the “non-stick side” in case you forget.
However, aluminum foil could pose a serious risk to your health—so maybe you should stop cooking with it altogether.
Aluminum foil might be one of our favorite inventions ever. Whether we’re grilling up some fresh veggies in a neatly-wrapped parcel or folding a leftover slice of pizza to save for later, it’s the perfect solution to pretty much any kitchen situation. Seriously, our list of uses for this shiny staple is endless.
We noticed that the handy tool comes with two distinct sides: a shiny, reflective side and a dull, matte side. That got us thinking. Is there a purpose behind the two different textures? Should we be using different sides for certain reasons? Have we been doing everything wrong for years?!
“Regardless of the side, both sides do the same job cooking, freezing and storing food,” Mike Mazza, marketing director for Reynolds Wrap, told TODAY Home via email. “It makes no difference which side of the foil you use unless you’re using Reynolds Wrap Non-Stick Aluminum Foil.”
Non-Stick foil actually has a protective coating on one side, so the company recommends only placing food on the side marked “non-stick” for maximum efficiency.
Aluminum foil, or tin foil, is a paper-thin, shiny sheet of aluminum metal. It’s made by rolling large slabs of aluminum until they are less than 0.2 mm thick.
It’s used industrially for a variety of purposes, including packing, insulation and transportation. It’s also widely available in grocery stores for household use.
At home, people use aluminum foil for food storage, to cover baking surfaces and to wrap foods, such as meats, to prevent them from losing moisture while cooking.
People may also use aluminum foil to wrap and protect more delicate foods, like vegetables, when grilling them.
Lastly, it can be used to line grill trays to keep things tidy and for scrubbing pans or grill grates to remove stubborn stains and residue.
Aluminum is one of the most abundant metals on earth.
In its natural state, it is bound to other elements like phosphate and sulfate in soil, rocks and clay.
However, it’s also found in small amounts in the air, water and in your food.
In fact, it’s naturally occurring in most foods, including fruits, vegetables, meats, fish, grains and dairy products.
Some foods, such as tea leaves, mushrooms, spinach and radishes, are also more likely to absorb and accumulate aluminum than other foods.
Additionally, some of the aluminum you eat comes from processed food additives, such as preservatives, coloring agents, anti-caking agents and thickeners.
Note that commercially produced foods containing food additives may contain more aluminum than home-cooked foods.
The actual amount of aluminum present in the food you eat depends largely on the following factors:

  • Absorption: How readily a food absorbs and holds on to aluminum
  • Soil: The aluminum content of the soil the food was grown in
  • Packaging: If the food has been packaged and stored in aluminum packaging
  • Additives: Whether the food has had certain additives added during processing

Aluminum is also ingested through medications that have a high aluminum content, like antacids.
Regardless, the aluminum content of food and medication isn’t considered to be a problem, as only a tiny amount of the aluminum you ingest is actually absorbed.
The rest is passed in your feces. Furthermore, in healthy people, absorbed aluminum is later excreted in your urine.
Generally, the small amount of aluminum you ingest daily is considered safe
[url=]Seamless steel pipe production line is mainly single-chain type cooling bed cooling bed, a double-stranded cooling bed, the new chain cooling bed, stepping rack cooling bed, screw-type cooling bed.
1, single-chain cooling bed
More use of single-chain cooling bed climbing structure. Cooling bed and fixed by the forward rail transport chain composed of a set of transmission. Placed between two steel dial grip forward transport chain, fixed steel rails bear the weight of the body. Single chain cooling bed transport chain finger means of the forward thrust friction of the steel pipe and the fixed rail to generate rotary motion, while relying on the weight of steel and the angle of lift, the steel pipe is always abutted against the forward transport chain finger, achieve a smooth pipe rotation.

2, double-stranded cooling bed
Duplexes cooling bed transport chain from the forward and reverse transport chains, positive and negative chain of transmission of each set. Placed between two steel dial grip forward transport chain, the reverse chain bear weight steel body. Duplexes cooling bed transport chain use the forward thrust of the steel pipe pulling claw run forward, using the inverse chain steel pipe friction generated continuous rotary motion. Reverse chain movement also makes steel always leaning forward transport chain, finger, smooth rotation and uniform cooling.

3, the new chain cooling bed
A combination of single-stranded and double-stranded cooling bed features cooling bed, cooling bed into the uphill sections and downhill sections. The uphill sections of the transport chain by the forward and reverse transport chain consisting of a double-stranded structure, positive and negative together to make steel continues to rotate forward, doing sport climbing. Downhill section of the forward transport chain and single-stranded structures arranged in parallel steel rails, relying on weight to achieve rotation, do landslide movement.

4, stepping rack cooling bed
Stepping rack cooling bed bed composed by two racks, assembled in a fixed beam, called static rack, another assembly in moving the beam, called the move a rack. L The agency action, moving the pipe rack will hold up the rise, due to an inclined angle, steel rolling when it is lifted once along the tooth. Move up to the highest gear position, stepping body movements so that the moving direction of the rack to the cooling bed one step away from the output. Lifting mechanism continues to operate, drive and move the rack dropped into a given rack alveolar steel, steel toothed rack along a fixed rolling once again, after moving back to the initial position of the rack, complete a cycle.

5. Screw the cooling bed
Main drive screw is cooled by means of the screw and fix the cooling of the gantry and other components, the screw including a screw rod and screw helix. Face fixed cooling gantry above the spiral rod above and below the spiral, steel body weight is borne by the fixed cooling stand. Main drive screw driven synchronous rotation, spiral screw driven steel roll forward on the fixed bench cooling, cooling. Single chain does not fit the cooling bed continuous operation, better cooling bed duplexes, the new cooling bed chain effect and low cost, stepping rack cooling bed is generally used in large or high profile production line[img]/Content/upload/2021797717/202108251334033471709.gif[/img], screw-type cooling bed are generally smaller diameter seamless steel pipe for cooling.

Heat treatment services for stainless steel and metal alloys
Solution annealing (also referred to as solution treating) is a common heat-treatment process for many different families of metals. Stainless steels, aluminum alloys, nickel-based superalloys, titanium alloys, and some copper-based alloys all may require solution annealing.
The purpose of solution annealing is to dissolve any precipitates present in the material, and transform the material at the solution annealing temperature into a single phase structure. At the end of the solution annealing process, the material is rapidly quenched down to room temperature to avoid any precipitation from occurring during cooling through lower temperature ranges. The single phase solution annealed material will be in a soft state after treatment.
The solution annealing treatment is required prior age hardening / precipitation hardening. The single phase microstructure created during solution annealing is required prior to age hardening, such that only the precipitates formed during age hardening will be present in the final product. The composition, size, and quantities of those precipitates formed during aging will determine the final product’s hardness, strength, and mechanical properties after aging. It is critical that the structure be properly solution treated prior to aging in order to meet all of these requirements.
High-quality solution heat treatment
We recognize how important it is to our clients that the finished product we create demonstrates exceptional quality, and purity. To achieve this goal, we have invested heavily in our machinery, as well as implemented rigorous quality-control standards that ensure your work is completed to the very highest standard at every stage of solution heat treating. Our experienced team is able to successfully undertake heat treatment solution on a wide-variety of projects.
Definition of Cast Roll and Forged Roll
We will introduce cast roll and forged roll.
Forged rolls offer outstanding internal and surface soundness and meet customers’ requirements for strength, hardness, and reliability. Manufacturer produces forged rolls on advanced liquid forging hydraulic presses and heat treat by means of double and progressive induction to guarantee that our products have excellent levels of chemical pureness, solid metallurgic structure, and high resistance. The Reinosa steel plant’s latest developments in forged back-up rolls produces a superior product compared to cast back-up rolls. The structural homogeneity of forged rolls enables optimal performance in the mill.
The twin-roll plate casti roll is not completely equivalent to the roll on the twin-roll plate and strip casting machine. It is a deformation tool and also functions as a water-cooled crystallizer in the process of casting the roll. When working, the outer surface of the roll sleeve of the casting roll is in contact with the hot molten metal, and the inside of the roll sleeve is washed by powerful cooling water to quickly take away a large amount of heat, and there is a strong heat exchange between them. Casting rolls not only bear the rolling pressure of deformed metal, but also bear huge heat exchange stress. Therefore, special requirements are put forward for the cast roll sleeve material and the cast roll structure. The selected roll sleeve material can withstand the alternating heat. Load, have sufficient heat transfer capacity, do not chemically react with molten metal, and have sufficient strength and rigidity to ensure the smooth progress of the casting and rolling process.

3 Ways Suspended Platforms Increase Efficiency for Vertical-Vessel Maintenance

3 Ways Suspended Platforms Increase Efficiency for Vertical-Vessel Maintenance
It’s time to upgrade maintenance practices for vertical vessels. Like any routine maintenance, inspecting, removing and replacing refractory in vertical vessels places a costly burden on facilities in terms of downtime and lost productivity. One of the main reasons for this is the traditional solution for accessing vertical surfaces – scaffolding – severely limits efficiency. It also increases safety risks for employees.

Processing facilities are taking action to reclaim maintenance productivity and safety by investing in custom-manufactured suspended platforms for vertical-vessel operations. These systems feature a lightweight, heavy-duty metal platform that is erected inside the vessel and raised or lowered using manual or electric hoists for hassle-free maintenance and relining applications.

Suspended platforms offer a number of benefits over scaffolding systems, starting with effectively eliminating the protracted setup times that dominate scaffolding-based maintenance schedules. Here’s how these customized systems can boost productivity and safety throughout the maintenance process.


Speedy Setup
The amount of time scaffolding systems take to erect is their biggest deterrent and the greatest drain on maintenance productivity. This is due in part to the sheer complexity of the operation, which includes juggling a variety of pipes, hardware, boards and other materials to create the structure. Erection times vary based on vessel size and configuration, but even with an experienced crew, scaffolding can take several shifts all the way up to an entire week to construct. This puts significant stress on maintenance budgets and timelines.

To simplify the process and decrease setup times, steel suspended platform implement a modular design and pin-together construction. This greatly reduces the number of components and tools required for erection and allows crews to complete setup in as little as two hours.

Modular components manufactured from high-strength 6061-T6 aluminum provide the same strength as steel at one-third of the weight. And, because vertical vessels often feature small access points, manufacturers limit the size of modular components. The resulting pieces are easy to maneuver, weighing 40 pounds (18 kg) or less, and fit through a 22-inch-diameter (560-mm-diameter) access hole. This provides a lighter, more easily maneuverable solution than scaffolding’s heavy wooden planks and steel pipes, some of which are up to 14 feet long. 

In addition, pin connections allow for fast assembly and improve platform strength over welded connections by allowing for some flexibility while the platform is being raised or lowered. Welded joints are rigid, which increases stress on risers at platform joints. Pin-together joints are a better solution to help maintain safety and stability when dealing with varying speeds from the climbing hoists.

It is worth noting that suspended platforms require some initial site preparations. This can increase setup times the first go-round – sometimes up to a full shift for complicated systems. But in the long run, a suspended platform can save facilities significant time and effort with each use, leading to significant ROI potential.

For example, a copper plant replaced the scaffold system for their smelter with a custom suspended platform. This increased productivity and safety. Overall, the plant was able to save 320 man-hours per shutdown with the new system.


Room to Move
Even after the platform is assembled, the productivity benefits continue to add up. With scaffolding, tools and materials need to be hoisted up to working height a little at a time, often manually. This is a slow process with a heavy physical toll. It also limits productivity by restricting supply lines for materials, such as refractory brick, gunning equipment or other necessities.

A suspended platform, on the other hand, can easily transport up to 6,000 pounds (2,722 kg) up and down, and the open design provides ample space for personnel, tools and materials. This allows several workers to operate in the same area comfortably, as well as have everything they need close at hand for efficient maintenance. Crews simply load all necessary materials at the start of the shift while the platform is positioned at the vessel’s access point. When more brick or other supplies are required, the crew lowers the platform, loads the necessary materials and then easily returns to height. This saves considerable time and energy and can increase productivity by limiting the number of trips up and down.

The platform also provides more room and easier positioning for equipment such as gunning machines for shotcrete applications. Crews simply set up the machine directly on the platform and maneuver the entire system up and down, eliminating downtime from repositioning while maintaining an ideal distance from the vessel surface for proper adhesion. Using a suspended platform for this application also eliminates the physical toll and risk to crews from heavy hoses hanging from the scaffolding. 

In addition, the open platform and electric hoist system allow for infinitely variable height, resulting in unrivaled access for inspection, removal and replacement of refractory materials.

Scaffolding is inherently rigid. It has to be to create a sturdy base of operations. However, this rigidity restricts crew access to the burn surface. Pipes inhibit visual inspection and make it difficult to work on the area directly behind them. The scaffolding structure can also obstruct small flaws, causing them to be overlooked. Crews must squat down or reach up high when working on surfaces in between 8-foot scaffolding stories.

Suspended platforms provide crews with 360-degree access at a comfortable working height, regardless of the task at hand. To optimize accessibility and productivity for a particular facility, manufacturers also customize designs to fit vessels up to 22 feet in diameter, so crews can get directly against the burn surface without risk of falling. This allows crews to inspect every inch, catching even the small flaws that could lead to bigger problems down the line if overlooked. Also, some suspended platforms allow crews to adjust the size of the platform by up to 3 feet while suspended by changing the outer panels. This results in better accessibility and easy transition between different widths of a vessel.


Ergonomics for Better Economics
It goes without saying that having a platform, rather than a narrow scaffold, increases worker safety.

Falls continue to rank number one in workplace injury reports, and refractory repair is not immune to tragic accidents. Recent U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics data identified 338 fatal falls to the lower level among 1,038 total construction fatalities for the year. That same year, falls on the same level or to lower levels amounted to $17.1 billion (29.2%) of the nearly $60 billion spent by employers on serious, non-fatal workplace injuries.

A suspended platform replaces narrow wooden catwalks with an aluminum surface that spans the entire vessel, eliminating the risk of falls or dropped objects. It also eliminates the need for workers to climb up and down carrying small tools and the need to haul materials and larger equipment up to height, hand over hand, resulting in a much safer jobsite.

There are long-term safety benefits that go beyond this. From setup through all aspects of refractory maintenance, an aluminum suspended platform puts less physical strain on employees. The lightweight, modular components are less cumbersome than long poles and heavy wooden planks. Easy access to materials and tools reduces the risk of repetitive-motion injuries as well as minor cuts, bruises or scrapes that come with manually moving refractory materials. Being able to position the platform at the ideal working height for the job at hand limits bending or reaching, providing an ergonomic solution instead.

All of these small but significant safety benefits lead to long-term savings in the form of worker’s compensation claims and insurance premiums.
Making the switch to a ZLP500 rope suspended platform requires some initial planning, but positive returns are almost immediate. Facilities that have made the switch save tens of thousands of dollars with each maintenance cycle, providing a return on investment in one or two uses. The key is working with a reputable manufacturer that can provide a customized platform that fits a facility’s needs perfectly. Working together, these partners can revolutionize refractory maintenance in vertical vessels.

Mr. Jayesh Vadukiya, M.D, New Age Construction Equipment Engineering Company

New Age Construction Equipment Engineering Company is one of the leading manufacturers of construction equipment like Rope Suspended Working Platforms (Gondolas/ Cradles), Bar Bending Machines, Bar Cutting Machines, etc. The company is strictly complying with ISO 9001:2008 certification and its products have also received CE certificates. The stringent quality standards conforming to “OE” standards enable it to guarantee 100% satisfaction for the entire range of products.
New Age believes in innovation, technology, and customization of its products, based on market research and end-users’ expectations, and has a strong sales & service team of professionals. The company has many instances of innovation and customization, especially of its Rope Suspended Platforms (RSP) / Gondolas/ Cradles. Presenting here two success stories on customized RSP for Dam & Silo Project.
The job was to clean the wall of the dam. It was a very difficult job because of the wind pressure and the height of the wall. The width of the road on the dam was too short to fix a standard upper mechanism of RSP. Another problem was the customer’s requirement of designing the upper mechanism in such a way that vehicles should also pass through the upper mechanism and their movement should not be stopped during the cleaning.

Moreover, the upper mechanism was so heavy that it was next to impossible to shift it. The customer wanted to move the wall machine (upper mechanism + cradle) from one place to another in a short time, and we did that without the help of any laborers.
We designed the RSP in such a way that the client’s requirement was fulfilled, and work was done timely. We had also provided specially designed Motorized device for shifting of wall machine without any requirement of labor. With our vast experience of doing challenging projects, we are always ready to take new assignments and try to resolve all issues through our customized solutions.

Adding efficiency to general lab equipment

General equipment makes up a lab’s foundation. Without these crucial tools, few experiments could be performed, because nearly every research project depends on one or more of such technologies. As fundamental elements of research, general lab equipment must also be efficient. “Energy efficiency in laboratory equipment is extremely important,” says John Dilliott, energy manager at the University of California, San Diego. “It’s a major, yet virtually untapped area.” He mentions that My Green Lab, a California-based nonprofit, published a 2015 report estimating that there are more than 1.2 billion square feet of laboratory space in the United States. “These spaces are three to five times more energy intensive than office areas due to energy-intensive equipment, around-the-clock operations, 100 percent outside-air requirements, and high airflow rates,” Dilliott says. “Not only does laboratory equipment consume a substantial amount of energy, but anyone who has ever been in a lab knows that the heat generated by lab equipment can lead to overcompensation by heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems, resulting in an additional increase in energy consumption.”
By saving energy, it takes less capital to run a piece of equipment, and some of the most basic equipment consumes a lot of electricity. According to the website of the International Institute for Sustainable Laboratories (I2SL) in Arlington, Virginia: “The energy used by [plug-in] equipment (e.g., freezers, autoclaves, centrifuges) constitutes from 10 to as much as 50 percent of the total energy use in a laboratory (not including associated cooling energy use).” I2SL’s web page adds, “Many scientists, laboratory managers, and laboratory design consultants are beginning to use energy efficiency as a selection criterion for laboratory equipment, such as laboratory oven, and some manufacturers are starting to advertise the ‘green features’ of their products.” In an effort to start a central database of energy-efficiency information, I2SL created the Energy-Efficient Laboratory Equipment Wiki (
When considering any technology upgrade for energy efficiency, scientists wonder about the payback: How long will it take to recoup the price of the new equipment through energy savings? “Payback is a difficult question to answer as it’s dependent on the initial purchase price, the cost of energy, how the equipment is used, and the type of equipment that is being replaced,” says Allison Paradise, executive director of My Green Lab. “In addition, so few studies have been done on energy consumption of laboratory equipment that it’s often difficult to know, without metering, what the baseline energy consumption is of the existing equipment and what the energy consumption is of the new equipment.” She adds, “Our nonprofit cofounded the Center for Energy Efficient Laboratories (CEEL) to address this specific need”—gathering real-world data on the energy used by general lab equipment. Only with those data in hand can scientists choose the most efficient devices.

An incubator comprises a transparent chamber and the equipment that regulates its temperature, humidity, and ventilation. For years, the principle uses for the controlled environment provided by incubators included hatching poultry eggs and caring for premature or sick infants, but a new and important application has recently emerged, namely, the cultivation and manipulation of microorganisms for medical treatment and research. This article will focus on laboratory (medical) incubators.
A[url=] laboratory magnetic stirrer is a device widely used in laboratories and consists of a rotating magnet or a stationary electromagnet that creates a rotating magnetic field. This device is used to make a stir bar, immerse in a liquid, quickly spin, or stirring or mixing a solution, for example.
Laboratory shakers are a key piece of equipment in any biological laboratory. Their versatility enables scientists to easily culture, monitor and scale up a range of experiments including biofuel research and microbiological cultures. When buying a new biological shaker, it’s important to consider the experiments and applications you want to use it for and the people using it. The following guide highlights seven key matters to consider when choosing the right shaker for your laboratory.
1) Orbit size
The diameter of the orbit of your shaker is an important factor when considering different shakers; different orbit sizes suit different culturing techniques and applications.
Aeration and circulation of the growth medium in your experiment is directly affected by the orbit size, so maximise your culturing efficiency by choosing the best orbit size for your application.
Most shakers are available in a 2.5cm and 5.1cm orbit. In general, a 2.5 cm orbit is a standard option for most applications, but higher volume experiments e.g. >2 litres, or shear sensitive cells may benefit from a larger diameter orbit.
2) Shaking
Oxygenation of the cultures also depends on the speed of the agitation. By increasing the agitation speed, the surface area of the liquid increases by washing against the side of the flask, enabling better aeration of the culture if done at an optimal speed.
3) Temperature control
Biological culturing is a precise and temperamental process; sudden changes in temperature can massively affect your culture and so incorporating good temperature control is an important factor to consider in instrument selection.
Reproducibility and consistency are crucial when culturing, so it’s also important to consider the uniformity of any heating/cooling across the whole of your shaker.

A laboratory muffle furnace is a critical component for high-temperature laboratory heating, enabling samples to be heat-treated at temperatures exceeding 1000°C (1832°F) with low risk of cross-contamination.

Rotary evaporator packages have been around for quite some time now, having been developed over 50 years ago to deal with problems faced with standard chemical distillation devices. Those issues included annihilation of the substances being distilled and slow boiling. Rotary evaporators prevent such problems through the spinning motion of the vessel, which speeds distillation by increasing the surface area of the liquid. This type of evaporator also provides a gentler, higher quality distillation process than standard procedures, according to a white paper from IKA. All basic rotary evaporators are made up of a vacuum source, collection flask, rotating flask, temperature bath and condenser. While oil may be used for the bath in order to reach temperatures of 180 C, water is the most commonly used substance. If you’re looking for a rotary evaporator, it’s important to think about whether or not you need automated options and what cooling option is best for you. Vacuum control is also crucial as vacuum that is achieved too quickly can cause foaming and bumping. As always, consulting your vendor can help you make the right choice of rotary evaporator for your lab.

The growth of Life science products has created geographic concentrations of interconnected life sciences companies and institutions, or “clusters,” forming in key global locations, including in the U.S. and the UK. The forming of clusters has been driven by a variety of factors, including a broad recognition that proximity between market participants can drive overall productivity. While it may seem paradoxical for a company to locate near its competitor, a deeper examination reveals that clustering creates synergies for all participants who can benefit from communal resources, regional trade, lobby and support groups, shared infrastructure and logistics channels, and a common regulatory and legal framework (and, in some instances, local tax incentives). 

Traditionally, life sciences clusters have organically developed over time near recognized research universities and teaching hospitals, as these provide ready access to talent across key scientific disciplines and easy means for intellectual property transfer from these institutions to private companies. In recent times, traditional big spenders on R&D in the life sciences sector (like big pharma) have increasingly favoured collaboration, often with smaller venture-funded companies that have spun out from leading academic institutions, as a means of achieving a stake in innovation while reducing in-house R&D risk and expenditure. An interesting by-product of the growth of venture-funded companies is the increasing availability of flexible short-lease lab spaces targeted at covenant weak start-ups and SMEs.

AnyDice — efficiency of code calculating rolls hitting a target with mixed pools; hitting the 5 second barrier

I have some code that is hitting the 5 second barrier;

function: target N:n of A:s B:s C:s {     result: [count {1..N, 1..(N/2)} in [sort {A, B, C}]] } output [target 7 of 4d12 0d20 0d8] output [target 7 of 4d12 2d20 0d8] output [target 7 of 4d12 4d20 0d8] 

Even if I remove the final output line, it still fails.

I believe the code does what I want it to – calculate the number of dice rolling at or under the target from mixed pools (it runs when using other pools: d20s seem to be a problem).

Is there anyway I can improve it so that at least the first two of these output lines will run (or better yet, all three of them)?

N.b. from my perspective these were some of the simplest pools I wanted to look at.

XSStrike Metrics: Confidence & Efficiency

This is regarding the xss scanning tool: XSStrike (

The tool produces three elements in a given report:

  1. XSS Payload
  2. Confidence
  3. Efficiency

Does anyone know what the metrics Confidence and Efficiency is measuring? I can hazard a guess that it suggests the likelihood of the payload working however this is not mentioned in the documentation and I wondered someone perhaps had a better understanding.

Unfortunately the answer was not forthcoming on the author’s git repo.

Switch statement efficiency in game code

Recently, I was digging into VVVVVVV’s source code that was released on GitHub by Terry Cavanagh. I went into the Game.cpp file, and found that it contains an absolutely gigantic, 3000+ case long switch statement in what is seemingly a function that is called consistently, not just once.

This made me ponder about how efficient switch statements are, and I realized I don’t know much about their difference to normal if-else chains. Are switch statements normally used in this manner to implement state handling, and why doesn’t something like this lag the game like crazy? (I’m assuming a massive amount of comparisons are being made every time)

What’s the best bucket fill algorithm in terms of efficiency?

I am looking for an algorithm that fills a given region of connected particular nodes in minimum time. I have tried using flood flow algorithm but it’s too slow and inefficient for large array, it checks each pixel more than once. Is there any algorithm that is more efficient than flood flow algorithm.

If that helps, i want to implement this algorithm for a paint filling app

Improve MySQL query efficiency for first row in a group

I’ve written the query below in MySQL to get the top 10 top landing pages across all browser sessions.

Reading other similar posts about how to access the first row in a group, it seemed like the solution was the following:

SELECT MIN(`created_at`) AS `created_at`, `session_token`, `url` FROM `session` GROUP BY `session_token`; 

This produced incorrect results and I found that while using MIN() to get the first record in a group, it only applied to the specified column and that other columns could be picked from other rows within the group.

I amended the query to the one below which produces the correct result:

SELECT `b`.`created_at`, `b`.`session_token`, `b`.`url`  FROM (     SELECT MIN(`created_at`) AS `created_at`, `session_token`, `url`      FROM `session`      GROUP BY `session_token` ) a INNER JOIN `session` b USING (`session_token`, `created_at`); 

I’ve created the solution below that produces the correct results, however it is now using two subqueries.

SELECT `c`.`url`, COUNT(*) AS `hits`  FROM (     SELECT `b`.`created_at`, `b`.`session_token`, `b`.`url`      FROM (         SELECT MIN(`created_at`) AS `created_at`, `session_token`, `url`          FROM `session`          GROUP BY `session_token`     ) `a`     INNER JOIN `session` `b` USING (`session_token`, `created_at`) ) AS `c` GROUP BY `c`.`url` ORDER BY `hits` DESC LIMIT 10; 

I’ve only tested it on a small dataset and it doesn’t seem particularly fast. Could it be improved to increase efficiency?

When building time takes so long, how to improve engineer’s efficiency?

The project is using C++ and the code takes around half an hour to build on a 32 core box. That time can be longer, e.g. 1 hour+ on a developer’s local machine.

I notice the efficiency is low when one is doing the build. Just sit and watch it is waste of time.

A typical case is: modify some code, then build, if build fails, modify again, build, test, if test fails, modify and build again.

Since the code is full of templates, so any modification in .H will take a long time to build.

If one developer wastes 2 hours daily in the build process, the cost would be too high.

How to improve the efficiency when dealing with a project that current code base needs a long time to build?